FOOD CHOICES AND NUTRIENT INTAKE
Nutrients – substances in food that provide energy and structure to the body and regulate body processes.
Essential nutrients – nutrients that a person must consume in order to maintain health.
Needs more than 40 essential nutrients to stay healthy.
Your overall diet is a critical determinant of your health status and your risk for chronic diseases.
Calorie – a unit of measurement used to express the amount of energy provided by food.
The amount of calories (energy) a diet contains is the primary nutritional predictor of body weight
Nutrient density – a measurement of the nutrients provided by a food relative to its calorie content.
It is important to choose high nutrient density foods to “get more bang for your buck”.
Fortified foods – foods to which one or more nutrients have been added.
Because manufacturers add nutrients that are not designed to address deficiencies, it increases chances of consuming excess nutrients.
Example: Vitamin D in milk, vitamin B and iron in grain products.
Dietary supplements – products sold to supplement the diet; may include nutrients, enzymes, herbs, or other substances.
FOOD PROVIDES MORE THAN NUTRIENTS
Phytochemicals – substances found in plant foods that are not essential nutrients but may have health-promoting properties.
Whole-grain bread – fiber and phytochemicals that help reduce risk of cancer and heart disease.
Oatmeal – type of fiber that reduces blood cholesterol.
Green and black teas – phytochemicals that reduce risk of certain types of cancer.
Leafy green vegetables – reduce risk of age-related blindness.
Nuts – types of fat that may reduce risk of heart disease.
Zoochemicals – substances found in animal foods that also contain health-promoting properties.
Functional foods – foods that have health-promoting and/or disease-preventing properties beyond basic nutritional functions.
Foods such as broccoli and fish that contains natural substances that promotes health and disease prevention.
Designer foods – modified foods such as water with added vitamins.
WHAT DETERMINES FOOD CHOICES?
Taste, smell, appearance, and texture
Cultural and societal norms
6 Major Nutrients
Lowers blood pressure
Carbohydrates – sugars, starches, fiber
Fiber makes you full
Lipids (fats) – cholesterol, saturated fats, unsaturated fats
Saturated fats most associated with heart disease
Fat = long term energy
Proteins – made of amino acids
Growth and repair
Can be used for energy but i