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BPK 110 (62)
Chapter 1

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Diana Bedoya

CHAPTER 1 FOOD CHOICES AND NUTRIENT INTAKE Nutrients – substances in food that provide energy and structure to the body and regulate body processes. Essential nutrients – nutrients that a person must consume in order to maintain health.  Needs more than 40 essential nutrients to stay healthy.  Your overall diet is a critical determinant of your health status and your risk for chronic diseases. Calorie – a unit of measurement used to express the amount of energy provided by food.  The amount of calories (energy) a diet contains is the primary nutritional predictor of body weight Nutrient density – a measurement of the nutrients provided by a food relative to its calorie content.  It is important to choose high nutrient density foods to “get more bang for your buck”. Fortified foods – foods to which one or more nutrients have been added.  Because manufacturers add nutrients that are not designed to address deficiencies, it increases chances of consuming excess nutrients. Example: Vitamin D in milk, vitamin B and iron in grain products. Dietary supplements – products sold to supplement the diet; may include nutrients, enzymes, herbs, or other substances. FOOD PROVIDES MORE THAN NUTRIENTS Phytochemicals – substances found in plant foods that are not essential nutrients but may have health-promoting properties. Whole-grain bread – fiber and phytochemicals that help reduce risk of cancer and heart disease. Oatmeal – type of fiber that reduces blood cholesterol. Green and black teas – phytochemicals that reduce risk of certain types of cancer. Leafy green vegetables – reduce risk of age-related blindness. Nuts – types of fat that may reduce risk of heart disease. Zoochemicals – substances found in animal foods that also contain health-promoting properties. Functional foods – foods that have health-promoting and/or disease-preventing properties beyond basic nutritional functions.  Foods such as broccoli and fish that contains natural substances that promotes health and disease prevention. Designer foods – modified foods such as water with added vitamins. WHAT DETERMINES FOOD CHOICES?  Taste, smell, appearance, and texture  Cultural and societal norms  Geographic availability  Environment  Health consciousness  Psychological states MAJOR NUTRIENTS 6 Major Nutrients  Macronutrients  Water  Lowers blood pressure  Hydrates body  Carbohydrates – sugars, starches, fiber  Fiber makes you full  Lowers cholesterol  Lipids (fats) – cholesterol, saturated fats, unsaturated fats  Saturated fats most associated with heart disease  Fat = long term energy  Proteins – made of amino acids  Growth and repair  Can be used for energy but i
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