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Chapter 1-10

BPK 110 Chapter 1-10: BPK 110 textbook notes

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 110
Gina Whitaker

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BPK 110 textbook notes
Chapter 1
- We make over 200 food based decisions in a day
- Nutrients = provide energy and structure to the body and regulate body
o They are substances in food that humans need to live and grow
- Humans need more than 40 essential nutrients
o Essential nutrients = nutrients that the body cannot make itself
Humans must consume them
- The amount of calories we consume is the fundamental dietary predictor of a
healthy body weight
o Healthy body weight reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as
heart disease, cancer, type 2 diabetes
Chronic diseases = long term diseases that negatively affect
physical/mental health and increase risk of early mortality
o Calories = a unit of measure to express the amount of energy
provided by food
One kilocalorie = 1 calorie = 1000 calories
- Nutrients from foods, fortified foods and supplements
o Nutrient density = a measure of the nutrients provided by a food
relative to its calorie content
Higher is better
Foods with low nutrient density you will have a difficult
time meeting your nutrient needs without exceeding your
calorie needs
o Fortified foods = foods to which one or more nutrients have been
Examples: milk with added vitamin D
Fortified to eliminate nutrient deficiencies
o Dietary supplements = products sold to supplement the diet. May
include nutrients, enzymes, herbs, or other substances
Do not offer all the benefits of food and may provide a false
sense of security regarding health
Increase the risk of consuming toxic levels of a nutrient
- What determines food choices
o Generally choose foods for reasons other than the nutrients they
o Choices depend on
What and how we have learned to eat
Socially acceptable foods in our cultural heritage or religion
The food choices we think are healthy
Our personal convictionsvegetarianism, etc.

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o Food choices
We use food as a reward and punishment
Good kid gets ice cream
Comfort food
We choose from the foods available to us
Food preferences are learned as part of an individual’s family,
cultural, national, and social background
Food is part of social interactions
Going out for pizza with friends
Attitudes about what you think are good for you
Restricted by economic factors
Bad food is cheaper
- Six classes of nutrients
o Carbohydrates
o Lipids
o Proteins
o Water
o Vitamins
o Minerals
- Macronutrients = carbs, lipids, proteins, and water
o Because they are needed in large amounts
- Micronutrients = vitamins and minerals
o Because they’re needed in small amounts
- All nutrients together are needed to provide for growth, maintain and repair
the body, and support reproduction
- The six classes of nutrients
o Nutrients are differentiated by their basic molecular structure
Organic compounds = substances that contain carbon bonded
to hydrogen
Carbs, lipids, and proteins all contain carbon in their
o They all provide energy to the body
o Carbohydrates
They all contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the same
proportions as in water
Starches, sugars, and fibre
Fibre = a carb that cannot be digested by human
o Lipids
They are fats. They contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and
most do not dissolve in water

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Cholesterol = an essential component of every cell and can be
used to form hormones, bile, and vitamin D
Found in diet and our blood
Excess leads to heart disease
Saturated fats = lipids that contain no double bonds in their
Most abundant in solid animal fats
Increased risk of heart disease
Unsaturated fats = lipids that contain one or more double
bonds in their structure
Abundant in plant oils
Reduced risk of heart disease
Most common lipid in the Canadian diet = triglycerides
Can be either saturated, unsaturated, or both
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
o Proteins
Includes molecules made up of one or more intertwining
chains of amino acids
They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Promote growth and development of the body
All proteins are made up of amino acids that link together
o Water
A single substance
We cant store water
The water we lose through sweat and excretion must be
constantly replaced by water consumed in our diet
Water acts as a lubricant, transport fluid, and body
temperature regulator
o Vitamins
Organic molecules
Thirteen vitamins perform unique functions
Regulating energy production
Maintaining vision
Protecting cell membranes
Helping blood to clot
o Minerals
Essential elements
Found on the periodic table
Iron needed for the transport of oxygen in the blood
- What nutrients do
o Energy-yielding nutrients = carbs, lipids, and proteins
Because they provide energy that can be measured in calories
o If the energy you take in from meals is greater than the amount you
burn, the excess energy is stored as fat tissue for later use
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