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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Leah Esplen

Unit 1, Chapter 1 Notes CHAPTER 1 –FOOD CHOICES 5 factors that affect food choices Environmental -Where you live, who you live with, how you live- has a lot to do with what you choose to eat. -Environmental factors that influence our food choices include economics, lifestyle, culture, and religion. -Where you live- location and climate affect food costs, a major determinant of food choice -Wealthier households spend 7% of their after tax income on food, low-income families spend around 25% of their income on food. It is assumed that wealthier households have more nutritious diets b/c they can afford to buy higher-quality lean meats, more fish& seafood, and more fruits and veggies; nearly 20% of low income households bought no fruits or vegetables. Lifestyle -Our fast-paced society has little time/ patience for food preparation. Current trends suggest we eat at home more often, but we are constantly eating ready-to-eat or heat-and- eat food. Sensory Influences: Taste, Texture, and Smell -4 classic tastes-sweet, sour, salty, and bitter, one additional taste sensation is umami Umami: A Japanese term that describes a delicious meaty/ savoury sensation. Chemically, this taste detects the presence of glutamate. -Glutamate is an amino acid( a building block of protein) , found in monosodium glutamate (MSG). Cognitive Influences -thoughts and feelings about food; cognitive influences affect our thinking and the decisions we make 6 Cognitive influences: -Day to Day influences on food choices: Habits -It is our routine to eat 3 meals a day: We often eat the same foods particularly for Breakfast (eg. Cereal and milk) and lunch (eg. sandwiches). Unit 1, Chapter 1 Notes -Comfort and Discomfort Foods -Our desire for particular foods is often based on behavioural motives. For some people, food is their emotional security blanket because consuming favourite foods can make us feel better, relieve stress and allay anxiety. -As infants, they experience both physical and psychological satisfaction when eating. Particular foods are eaten when people are feeling under the weather (Soup and hot tea) and feel like they need to be rewarded (ice cream or sweets) -Food Cravings -Pica is often associated with pregnant women. Iron deficiency tends to drive pregnant woman’s cravings so that she seeks iron in any possible form, even dirt. Pica: The craving for and consumption of non-food items such as dirt, clay, or laundry starch -Advertising and Promotion -Aggressive and sometimes deceptive advertising programs can influence people to buy foods of poor nutritional quality. -Advertising can sometimes be helpful especially to consumers whose diets need improvements. For example, in the mid 1980’s, Kellogg’s launched a print and t.v ad campaign for All-Bran cereal to suggest that a high fibre diet would less the chance of cancer . Sales increased on all high-fibre cereals. -Social Factors -Social factors exert a powerful influence on food choice. By observing their parents, infants and children learn which foods and combinations of foods are appropriate to consume and under what circumstances. -With age and social contact, children and teens adopt food preferences and eccentric preparations (for ex. only eating sandwiches cute in triangles.) Social Facilitation: Interactions with others can affect your eating behaviour -Nutrition and Health Benefits -If people feel vulnerable to a disease and believe that dietary change will lead to positive results, they will pay closer attention to information about links between dietary choices, dietary fat, and risks for heart diseases and cancer. - A desire to lose weight is a powerful force to shaping decisions to accept or reject particular foods Unit 1, Chapter 1 Notes Cultural Influences (pg.8) -The strongest influence on food preferences is the traditional or cultural background. -The Japanese are known for their long life spans and this is partly attributed to their nutrition. Consumed with every Japanese meal is rice and Japanese people eat an avg of 3 ounces of fish per day. -To a large extent, culture defines our attitude. “One man’s food is another man’s poison” For example, in China, the local delicacy is deep-fried scorpion. -Food can have symbolic meanings related to family traditions, social status and even health. Folk remedies rely on food—ex. herbal teas for purposes of allaying anxiety to preventing cancer and heart disease. Religion -Food represents religious rites, symbols, and customs -Each Religion has distinct dietary laws.  Judaism- the orthodox laws that prohibit eating milk and meat at the same meal or even preparing /serving them with the same dishes and utensils, Hinduism – they are vegetarians and do not eat eggs, Buddhism – Intoxicating beverages are prohibited in this religion, Islam – prohibits consumption of pork, flesh clawed animals, alcohol and other intoxicating drugs, Catholics – during lent, traditional catholic practices substitute meat for fish on Fridays. Health Status - Physical restrictions due to diseases - Declining taste sensitivity - Age and gender Genetics - Taste sensitivity, preference for sweets and avoidance of bitter INTRODUCING THE NUTRIENTS Nutrients: Any substances in food that the body can use to obtain energy, synthesize tissues, or regulate functions. -Nutrients are used for normal growth and development, for maintaining cells and tissues, for fuel to do physical and metabolic work and for regulating thousands of body processes. Food provides these nutrients; essential nutrients the body cannot make. Unit 1, Chapter 1 Notes Essential Nutrients: Substances that must be obtained from the diet because the body either cannot make them or cannot make adequate amounts of them 6 Classes of Nutrients Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water Definition of Nutrients - The focus is on what happens in the absence of particular nutrients. The absence of a nutrient from the diet for a long enough time results in a specific change in health; For example, lack of vitamin C will eventually lead to scurvy - New area of research in nutrition is: Phytochemicals Phytochemicals: Substances in plants that may possess health-protective effects, even though they are not essential for life - Plant chemicals are not nutrients but they have important health functions, such as antioxidant activity Antioxidants: A substance that combines with or otherwise neutralizes a free radical, thus preventing oxidative damage to cells and tissues - The 6 class of nutrients serve 3 general functions: they provide energy (fuel), regulate body processes, and contribute to body structures - Since the body needs large sums of carbohydrates, proteins and fats are called macronutrients Macronutrients: Nutrients such as carbs, fat, or protein, that are needed in relatively large amounts in the diet Micronutrients: Nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, that are needed in relatively small amounts.  3 general functions of nutrients in the body. (1) Micronutrients, some lipids and proteins, and H20 help regulate body processes such as temperature, blood pressure, and energy production (2) Lipids, proteins minerals and H20 help provide structure to bone, muscle, and other cells. (3) Macronutrients supply energy to power muscle contractions and cellular functions. Unit 1, Chapter 1 Notes Key differences among the classes of nutrients - chemical composition of nutrients – whether or not the compounds contain the element carbon Organic: In chemistry, any compound that contain carbon except carbon oxides (e.g, carbon dioxide) and sulphides and metal carbonates (e.g potassium carbonate). The term organic also is used to denote crops that are grown without synthetic fertilizers or chemicals Inorganic: Any substance that does not contain carbon, excepting certain simple carbon compounds such as carbon dioxide and monoxide. Common examples include table salt (sodium chloride) and baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)  Vitamins, carbohydrates, lipid and proteins (complex chemical structures) = Organic  Minerals and Water (simple chemical structures) = Inorganic Carbohydrates Carbohydrates: Compounds including sugars, starches, and dietary fibres, that usually have the general chemical formula (CH20)n, where n represents the number of CH20 units in the molecule. Carbohydrates are a major source of energy
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