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BPK 110 (4)
Chapter 1

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McGill University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Diana Bedoya

Chapter 1: Nutrition, Everyday Choices Canada: excess sodium, fat, calories Advertisements, proximity to fast foods, eating habits of peers Over 200 food choices a day (environment of food intake, with whom) 40 essential human nutrients Food with higher nutrient density has more nutrients per kilocalorie than those with lower nutrient density- “more bang for your buck” Fortified foods aim to eliminate nutrient deficiencies - Eg. Vitamin D in milk, Vitamin B and iron in grain products Dietary supplements- Eg. multivitamins. Ma give false sense of security Nutrients and their Functions Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water Micronutrients: Vitamins, minerals Organic compounds: Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins Carbohydrates: starch, sugar, fibre Lipids: cholesterol, saturated fat, unsaturated fat Vitamins: Organic molecules needed in small amounts (vision, blood clot, energy production) Minerals: Essential elements (Fe transport of O2, Ca++ muscle contraction) Energy-yielding nutrients: Carbs, lipids, proteins Carbs- 4kcal/g Proteins- 4kcal/g Lipids- 9kal/g Phytochemicals: substances in plant foods that are non-essential nutrients but may have health-promoting properties (fruits, veg, whole grain) - antioxidents, flavonoids Functional foods: Foods that have health-promoting/disease preventing properties beyond basic nutritional functions (broccoli, fish) - Designer foods/Neutraceuticals: Fortified/enhanced foods (vitamin water) Health and Disease Malnutrition: Consuming too much or too little of one or more nutrients - Undernutrition- dehydration, scurvy (Vit C), osteoporosis - Overnutrition- Overdose iron liver failure, Vitamin B6 nerve damage (supplements) Top 3 causes of death: 1. Cancer (red meat, saturated fat  colon cancer) 2. Heart disease (high sodium and fat) 3. Stroke Nutritional genomics: Diet and life style + genes Healthy Diet Variety - man
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