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BPK 110 (4)
Chapter 2

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Diana Bedoya

Chapter 2: Guidelines for a Healthy Diet Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs): Canada’s first food guidelines “Canada’s Official Food Rules”- food guide in 1942 “Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide” – 2007 ­ accounts for various life stages, gender, stresses physical activity Assessing Nutritional Status 1. Record food intake 2. Analysis nutrient intake 3. Physical exam 4. Medical history 5. Laboratory tests Recommendations for Nutrient Intake Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): 4 sets of scientifically based reference values for the amounts of energy, nutrients, and other food components in the diet that are recommended to be consumed to reduce chronic disease risk, promote general health, and minimize symptoms of deficiency ­ replaced RNIs 1. Estimated Average Requirements (EARs): average amounts of nutrients or other dietary components required by healthy individuals within a specific gender and life-stage group ­ Nutrient intakes estimated to meet the needs of 50% of healthy individuals in a given gender and life-stage group ­ Not for evaluating individual’s intake but used to calculate RDAs 2. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs): recommend specific amounts of nutrients and other dietary components required to meet the needs of nearly all (97-98%) of the population - Nutrient intakes sufficient to meet needs of almost all healthy people in a specific gender and life-stage group - Typically set 20% above EAR values - Can be used as individual goal intake 3. Adequate Intakes (AIs): Nutrient intakes that should be used as a goal when no RDA exists; an approximation of the nutrient intake that sustains health - when not enough data about nutrient requirements to establish EARs and RDAs - based on typical intake levels of healthy people who show no symptoms of toxicity or deficiency - Can be used as individual goal intake 4. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs): Maximum amount of a nutrient that most people can consume daily without some adverse effect - Dietary supplements and some fortified food, though usually hard to exceed ** RDA and AI values represent the amount that most healthy people should consume, on average, over several days or weeks, not every day Recommendations for Energy Intake Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs): Average energy intake values (kilocalories) predicted to maintain body weight in healthy individuals Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs): Healthy ranges of intake for carbs, fats, and proteins, expressed as % of total energy intake Carbohydrates: 45-65% Proteins: 10-35% (**20-35% in textbook; go with lecture slides) Fats: 20-35% Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide Vegetables and Fruit ­ Vitamins, minerals, fibre, phytochemicals ­ Lowers risk of cancer, heart disease, type-2 diabetes ­ Dark green vegetables  lower risk of heart disease and cancer ­ Orange vegetables  Vitamin A ­ Vegetables and fruits have more nutrients than its juices, which may have added salts, sugars ­ Sugar-sweetened beverages are high in sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, and fruit-juice concentrates ­ Fresh, frozen, or canned vegetables all recommended Grain Products ­ Whole grains: barley, brown rice, oats, quinoa, wild rice  lower risk of heart disease and type-2 diabetes ­ White, bleached, refined grains are n
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