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BPK 110 (4)
Chapter 4

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McGill University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Diana Bedoya

Chapter 4: Carbohydrates- Sugars, Starches, Fibres Refined: refers to foods that have undergone processing to remove the coarse parts of the original food Enrichment: (type of fortification) The addition of specific amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron to refined grains. Since 1998, folic acid has also been added to enriched grains Fortification: The addition of nutrients to food Whole-grain products include entire kernel Kernel: germ, bran, endosperm Refined grain products only have endosperm; germ, bran, phytochemicals, fibre, some vitamins and minerals lost - Enrichment replace some, but not all, lost nutrients Empty calories: Energy with few additional nutrients - Refined sugars chemically similar to natural sugars - However, common source of refined sugars tend to be void of nutrients; sources of natural sugars also have fibre, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and are more nutrient-dense Types of Carbohydrates Sugar unit: the smallest unit of a carbohydrate molecule Monosaccharide: a carbohydrate made up of a single sugar unit (glucose, fructose, galactose) Disaccharide: a carbohydrate made up of two sugar units (maltose, sucrose, lactose) Polysaccharide: a carbohydrate made up of two or more sugar units linked together Simple carbohydrates = monosaccharides and disaccharides Glucose: A six-carbon monosaccharide that is the primary form of carbohydrate used to provide energy in the body Complex Carbohydrates = polysaccharides (glycogen, starch, fibre) Glycogen: The storage form of carbohydrate in animals, made up of many glucose molecules li
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