Kin110_Chapter 1 & 2 Nutrition.docx

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Gina Whitaker

Kin110 Chapter 1 & 2 Nutrition Nutrition-the science of foods and their components, their actions within the body, relationships to health and disease, and the social, economic, cultural, and psychological implications of eating What influences our food choices? Sensory Taste -sweet, sour, bitter, salty Texture Smell Cognitive Learned food habits Comfort/discomfort foods Food cravings Advertising and promotion Social factors Nutrition and health beliefs Environmental Lifestyle Cultural influences Religion Economics Food = mixture of chemicals Nutrients-substances in food that provides energy and structure to the body and regulates body processes  Nutrient Intake General functions of nutrients Supply energy through calories (the amount of energy provided by food) Contribute to cell and body structure Regulate body processes Essential Nutrients-nutrients that must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be made by the body or cannot be made in sufficient quantities to maintain body functions Non-essential Nutrients-nutrients our body can make based on other nutrients -nutrients our body does not need at the moment Nutrient Density-a measure of nutrients provided by food relative to its calorie content Less processed food = more nutrient density 6 Essential Nutrients The Macronutrients-nutrients needed by the body in large amounts Water -most important nutrient making up 60% of an adult’s body weight -cannot be stored in excess amounts -must be constantly replaced by water obtained from our diet Organic Compounds-substances that contain carbon bonded to hydrogen Carbohydrates -starches, sugars, fiber Lipids -triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids -saturated fat (abundant in solid animal fats) -monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat (abundant in plant oils) Proteins -made of amino acids which are linked together in different combinations to form different proteins The Micronutrients-nutrients needed by the body in small amounts Vitamins -organic -13 different types which perform a variety of unique functions in the body E.g. A, D, E, C, K, B12 Minerals -inorganic E.g. sodium, calcium, fluoride Important Units Carbohydrates 4kcal/g Lipids 9kcal/g Protein 4kcal/g Alcohol 7kcal/g Calorie = kilocalorie = 1000 calories Phytonutrients-non-essential nutrients that are beneficial to your health Found in plants Works in the body along with essential nutrients to promote good health Examples -red, orange and yellow vegetables & fruit -dark green leafy vegetables -whole grains -nuts and seeds Most effective when consumed in its natural food source Alternative sources of nutrients: Dietary Supplements & Fortified Foods Nutrition in Health & Disease Malnutrition-a condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below what is optimal Undernutrition-when intake doesn’t meet the body’s need -the more severe the deficiency, the more dramatic the symptoms Examples of undernutrition Dehydration-deficiency of water -symptoms include headache, fatigue, and dizziness Scurvy-deficiency of vitamin C Osteoporosis-bones become weak and break easily caused by years of consuming a calcium deficient diet Overnutrition-an excess intake of nutrients or calories Examples of overnutrition -an overdose in iron can cause liver failure -too much vitamin B6 can cause nerve damage The leading causes of death in Canada are diet related -cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes Diet-Gene Interactions The genes you inherit may give you a greater and lesser tendency to develop conditions like obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes The nutrients and food components you consume and the amount of exercise you get can increase or decrease your risk of developing nutrition related diseases Your actual risk of disease results from the interplay between the genes you inherit and the diet and lifestyle choices you make Elements of a Healthy Diet Eat a variety of foods -different foods have different nutrients Practice moderation -not too much or too little Balance your choices -from different food groups -balance energy in and energy out Scientific Method-the general approach of science that is used to explain observations about the world around us The first step of the scientific method is to make an observation and ask questions about the observation The next step is to propose an explanation for this observation (hypothesis) Once a hypothesis is proposed, experiments are designed to test the hypothesis If the results from repeated experiments support the hypothesis, a scientific theory can be developed If experimental results do not support the hypothesis, a new hypothesis can be formulated Types of studies Epidemiological-studies health and disease trends and patterns in populations Animal Studies Cell Culture Human Studies -case studies -clinical trials How Scientists Study Nutrition Control group-the group of participants used as a basis of comparison. They are similar to the experimental group but do not receive the treatment being tested Variable-a factor of condition that is changed in an experimental setting Experimental group-the group of participants who undergo the treatment being tested Placebo-a fake medicine or supplement that is indistinguishable in appearance from the real thing. It is used to disguise the control and experimental groups in
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