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Chapter 1

BPK 110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Monounsaturated Fat, Polyunsaturated Fat, Nutrient Density


Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 110
Professor
Gina Whitaker
Chapter
1

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Kin110 Chapter 1 & 2 Nutrition
Nutrition-the science of foods and their components, their actions within the body,
relationships to health and disease, and the social, economic, cultural, and psychological
implications of eating
What influences our food choices?
Sensory
Taste
-sweet, sour, bitter, salty
Texture
Smell
Cognitive
Learned food habits
Comfort/discomfort foods
Food cravings
Advertising and promotion
Social factors
Nutrition and health beliefs
Environmental
Lifestyle
Cultural influences
Religion
Economics
Food = mixture of chemicals
Nutrients-substances in food that provides energy and structure to the body and regulates
body processes
Nutrient Intake
General functions of nutrients
Supply energy through calories (the amount of energy provided by food)
Contribute to cell and body structure
Regulate body processes
Essential Nutrients-nutrients that must be consumed in the diet because it cannot be made by
the body or cannot be made in sufficient quantities to maintain body functions
Non-essential Nutrients-nutrients our body can make based on other nutrients
-nutrients our body does not need at the moment
Nutrient Density-a measure of nutrients provided by food relative to its calorie content
Less processed food = more nutrient density

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6 Essential Nutrients
The Macronutrients-nutrients needed by the body in large amounts
Water
-most important nutrient making up 60% of an adult’s body weight
-cannot be stored in excess amounts
-must be constantly replaced by water obtained from our diet
Organic Compounds-substances that contain carbon bonded to hydrogen
Carbohydrates
-starches, sugars, fiber
Lipids
-triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids
-saturated fat (abundant in solid animal fats)
-monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat (abundant in plant oils)
Proteins
-made of amino acids which are linked together in different combinations to form different
proteins
The Micronutrients-nutrients needed by the body in small amounts
Vitamins
-organic
-13 different types which perform a variety of unique functions in the body
E.g. A, D, E, C, K, B12
Minerals
-inorganic
E.g. sodium, calcium, fluoride
Important Units
Carbohydrates 4kcal/g
Lipids 9kcal/g
Protein 4kcal/g
Alcohol 7kcal/g
Calorie = kilocalorie = 1000 calories
Phytonutrients-non-essential nutrients that are beneficial to your health
Found in plants
Works in the body along with essential nutrients to promote good health
Examples
-red, orange and yellow vegetables & fruit
-dark green leafy vegetables
-whole grains
-nuts and seeds
Most effective when consumed in its natural food source
Alternative sources of nutrients: Dietary Supplements & Fortified Foods
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