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Chapter 4

BPK 110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Bran, Refined Grains, Dietary Fiber

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 110
Gina Whitaker

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Kin110 Chapter 4 Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fibers
Carbohydrates in the Diet
Based on the amount of glucose our brain needs per day
Recommended carbohydrate intake
AMDR = 4565% of calories
Daily Value (for 2,000 kcal) = 300 grams
Minimum = 130g/day meets energy needs
Dietary Guidelines (Canada Food Guide)
Make at least half your grains whole grains
Variety of grains, fruits, vegetables
Limit added sugar intake
Carbohydrates in our Food
Unrefined carbohydrates-sources eaten in their natural form or with minimal processing
E.g. fruits, vegetables, whole grains
Method of cooking affects the amount of carbohydrates in our food
Refined carbohydrates-processed to remove coarse parts of the food
E.g. flours (white breads, cookies, muffins, etc), candies, sweetened drinks
-can be source of empty Calories
Enrichment-a type of fortification which adds back some of the nutrients lost in processing
Whole Grains
Germ-the embryo or sprouting portion of a kernel grain
-contains vegetable oil, vitamins, and minerals
Bran-the protective outer layers of whole grains which is a concentrated source of dietary fiber
Endosperm-the largest portion of a kernel grain
-primarily starch and serves as a food supply for the sprouting seed
Whole Grains vs. Refined Grains
Products that say whole grain may contain a little or a lot of whole grain
-in Canada, products with these stamps must have at least 8g of whole grain per serving
Refined grains have most or all of the bran and germ removed
-fiber and many vitamins and minerals lost during refining process
Refined Sugars-chemically similar to natural sugars found in food but lacks the fiber,
micronutrients and phytochemicals that come from natural food sources
• Low nutrient density
Types of Carbohydrates
Chemical compounds made up of at least 1 sugar molecule
Simple Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides-single sugar molecules
-must be in this form to be absorbed

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Disaccharides-2 sugar molecules
Complex Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides-3+ sugar molecules
Glucose-a 6-carbon monosaccharide that is the primary form of carbohydrate used to provide
energy in the body
-circulates in the blood
Fructose-a monosaccharide found in fruits and honey that is composed of six carbon atoms
arranged in a ring structure (commonly called a fruit sugar)
-makes up about half the sugar in honey and in the high-fructose corn syrup used to sweeten
many food and beverages
Galactose-a monosaccharide found in fruits and vegetables composed of 6 carbon atoms
arranged in a ring structure; when combined with glucose, it forms the disaccharide lactose
-part of milk sugar
Maltose-a disaccharide made of two glucose molecules linked together
Sucrose-a disaccharide commonly known as table sugar made up of glucose linked to fructose
Lactose-a disaccharide made of glucose linked to galactose that is found in milk
Complex Carbohydrates
Glycogen-the storage form of carbohydrates in animals made up of many glucose molecules
linked together in a highly branched structure
-not a source of carbohydrate we take in our diets
-only in form of supplement
-found in muscle and liver to be broken down quickly when the body needs glucose
Starches-carbohydrates found in plants made up of many glucose molecules linked in straight
or branched chains
E.g. grain products, legumes, other starchy vegetables
Fiber (cellulose)-an insoluble fiber that is in most prevalent structural material of plant cell walls
E.g. wheat bran and broccoli
How Starches and Fibers are formed in plants
Carbon dioxide + water (sunlight/energy) (glucose (C6H1206) starch/fiber) + oxygen
Starch-storage form of energy in plants
Fiber-plant structure
There are no human enzymes present in the small intestine that can break down fiber
Soluble Fiber-fiber that dissolves in water or absorbs water and can be broken down by
intestinal microflora
Insoluble Fiber-fiber that does not dissolve in water and cannot be broken down by bacteria in
the large intestine
Most sources of fiber contain a mix of fiber types
AI = 25 g/day (women), 38 g/day (men)
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