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Chapter 6

Kin 110 - Chapter 6

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Leah Esplen

KIN 110 – CHAPTER 6 – Proteins - Wasting: The breaking down of body tissues to use as a protein source A MINO A CIDS A RE THE BUILDING B LOCKS OF PROTEINS - Amino acids (total of 20) builds proteins - Indispensable Amino Acids: The 9 amino acids which the body cannot make - Dispensable Amino Acids: The 11 amino acids which the body can produce - Conditionally Indispensable Amino Acids: Amino acids that are normally dispensable, are made indispensable under special circumstances - Form generally consists of 1H, 1COOH, 1N2 , 1unique group - Peptide Bond: The bond between two amino acids o Releases water during bonding - Dipeptide: Two amino acids joined by a peptide bond - Tripeptide: Three amino acids joined by a peptide bond - Oligopeptide: 4-10 amino acids - Polypeptide: 10+ amino acids - Shape of the protein determines its function - Hemoglobin: Protein that carries oxygen - Hydrophilic Amino Acids: Amino acids that are attracted to water - Hydrophobic Amino Acids: Amino acids repelled by water - Disulfide Bridge: (Sulfur) bond which stabilizes the structure of protein - Denaturing a protein’s shape causes it to lose its function F UNCTIONS OF B ODY P ROTEINS - May be enzymes, hormones, antibodies, fluid balancers, transporters STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL FUNCTION - Collagen: Most abundant protein in the body, gives skin and bone their elastic strength - Keratin: Makes up the hair, nails and outer layer of skin - Motor Proteins: Proteins that turn energy into mechanical work ENZYMES - Enzymes: Speed up chemical reactions without being destroyed in process H ORMONES - Hormones: Chemical messengers of the body IMMUNE FUNCTION - Antibodies: Blood proteins which attack foreign material - Immune Response: Body’s response to foreign material invading body FLUID B ALANCE - Intracellular Fluid: Fluid inside body cells - Extracellular Fluid: Fluid outside body cells o Interstitial Fluid: Fluid between cells o Intravascular Fluid: Fluid in the blood - Edema: Swelling caused by build up of fluids A CIDB ASEB ALANCE - Buffers: Compounds which try to keep the pH of a solution constant - Acidosis: Low blood pH (<7.35) - Alkalosis: High blood pH (>7.45) SOURCE OF ENERGY AND G LUCOSE - When the body needs energy but does not have enough, it will break down the amino acid and carbon from proteins, a process called deamination P ROTEIN D IGESTION AND A BSORPTION 1. Stomach HCL unfolds proteins, exposing them to digestive enzymes - Precursor: Substance converted into another active substance - Pepsinogen activates with HCl into Pepsin 2. In the small intestine, enzymes break down protein to individual amino acids and small peptides - Proteases: Protein-digesting enzymes - Proenzyme: Inactive precursors of enzymes - Enzymes come in the proenzyme form because if not, they will digest themselves before protein comes in - Trypsinogen/Trypsin: Protease by pancreas. Proenzyme: trypsinogen, Protease: trypsin - Chymotrypsinogen/Chymotrypsin: Protease by pancreas. Proenzyme: Chymotrypsinogen, Protease: Chymotrypsin - Peptidases: E
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