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Chapter 11

Kin 110 - Chapter 11

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Leah Esplen

KIN 110 – CHAPTER 11 – Water and Major Minerals W ATER :T HE E SSENTIAL INGREDIENT FOR LIFE - Only live a few days without water - 45-75% of person’s weight - Contains Hydrogen Bonds: Bonds between hydrogen and oxygen atom - Electrolytes (ions): Substances dissolved your body which can conduct electricity - Functions of Water: o Heat Capacity: The amount of energy required to raise 1 Degree Celcius o Cooling Ability o Metabolism o pH Balance o Body Fluids - Ions: Atoms with an electrical charge o Cations: Positively charged ions o Anions: Negatively charged ions - 2/3 of body in intracellular fluids o Potassium, main cation in intracellular - 1/3 of body in extracellular fluids o Sodium, main cation in extracellular - Sodium-Potassium Pump: Mechanisms that pump sodium ions out of a cell, allowing potassium ions to enter - Semipermeable membrane: Membrane that allows some substances in, but others out - Osmosis: Movement of water by concentration gradients, water flows across membrane to the side with a higher concentration to balance it o Osmotic Pressure: Force which drives osmosis INTAKE R ECOMMENDATIONS - 3.7 Litres for Men - 2.7 Litres for Women o 3.0 Litres during pregnancy o 3.8 Litres during lactation - Insensible Water Loss: The continuous evaporation of water from skin and lungs o Increases during illness W ATER B ALANCE - Kidneys control amount and concentration of urine in response to hydration status - Osmoreceptors: Brain part which detects the fluid concentration in the blood, controls the release of antidiuretic hormone o Antidiuretic Hormone (Vasopressin): Increases blood pressure and prevents fluid excretion; Reabsorbs water in kidneys  Vasoconstrictor: Substance that causes blood vessels to contract, ADH can conserve water in higher concentrations to make vessels constrict - Aldosterone: Steroid hormone that raises blood pressure by promoting the retention of sodium (thus water) and excretion of potassium - Thirst: 1. Increases osmolarity of the fluid surrounding the osmoreceptors 2. Reduced blood volume and blood pressure 3. Increased angiotensin II 4. Dryness of the mouth and mucous membranes lining the esophagus o Older people and infants more vulnerable to dehydration - Alcohol suppresses ADH production - Possible to have water intoxication due to large quantities of water exceeding the kidney’s maximal excretion rate M AJOR M INERALS - Inorganic substances which the body needs, not changed by light, heat or alkalinity - Major Minerals: Minerals needed in excess of 100 milligrams - Trace Minerals: Minerals needed less of 100 milligrams - Phytate: Component of whole grains which binds with other minerals, carrying them unabsorbed out of the intestine - Oxalate: From spinach, binds calcium, which reduced calcium absorption S ODIUM - Major cation in extracellular fluid - Nerve and muscle functions - Body’s acidity and absorption of some nutrients - AI 1500 millig
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