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Chapter 9

BPK 110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Retinol, Retinoid, Carotenosis

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 110
Leah Esplen

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KIN 110 CHAPTER 9 Fat Soluble Vitamins
- Carotenodermia: The harmless yellow-orange to the skin due to high levels
of carotenoid-rich food, such as carrot
- Role in Antooxidants, Bone Health, Coenzymes, Vision and Blood
- Needed in small amounts, not an energy source, chemical regulation,
individual units rather than long chains, organic
- Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, K
o Intestinal cells absorb fat-soluble vitamins along with dietary fat
o Lipoprotein carry fat-soluble vitamins through the lymph and blood
o Liver picks up and stores the vitamins for future
- Water-Soluble Vitamins: B, C
o Dissolves in water
o Travels directly into the bloodstream
o Kidneys filter excess and excretes it
- Fat-soluble vitamins accumulate in the liver and adipose tissues
- Excessive intake of vitamin A or D causes toxic effects
- Little too much Vitamin is ok (100-150%), but mega dosages is toxic
- Fat-soluble vitamins pose a greater risk of toxicity because they are stored
for long periods of time
- Provitamins/Vitamin precursors: Inactive form of vitamins that the body
can convert to useable form
- Food more processed and cooked results in less vitamins
- Retinoids: Collectively, the 3 active forms of vitamin A
o Retinol: Alcohol form
Reproduction and bone health
o Retinal: Aldehyde form
Night and color vision
o Retinoic Acid: Acid form
Cell growth and differentiation
- Carotenoids: Provitamin of retinoids
- Liver stores more than 90% of Vitamin A
o As Retinyl esters
- Retinol-Binding Protein: Transports retinol from liver
- Vitamin A helps with vision:
o Cornea: Transparent outer surface of eye
o Retina: Lining back of eye consisting of rods and cones
o Rods: Cells reactive to dim lights
o Cones: Cells reactive to color lights
o Opsin: Protein that combines with retinal to form rhodopsin in rod cells
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