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Chapter 9

Kin 110 - Chapter 9

4 Pages

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 110
Leah Esplen

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KIN 110 – CHAPTER 9 – Fat Soluble Vitamins - Carotenodermia: The harmless yellow-orange to the skin due to high levels of carotenoid-rich food, such as carrot U NDERSTANDING V ITAMINS - Role in Antooxidants, Bone Health, Coenzymes, Vision and Blood Clotting - Needed in small amounts, not an energy source, chemical regulation, individual units rather than long chains, organic - Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, K o Intestinal cells absorb fat-soluble vitamins along with dietary fat o Lipoprotein carry fat-soluble vitamins through the lymph and blood o Liver picks up and stores the vitamins for future - Water-Soluble Vitamins: B, C o Dissolves in water o Travels directly into the bloodstream o Kidneys filter excess and excretes it - Fat-soluble vitamins accumulate in the liver and adipose tissues - Excessive intake of vitamin A or D causes toxic effects - Little too much Vitamin is ok (100-150%), but mega dosages is toxic - Fat-soluble vitamins pose a greater risk of toxicity because they are stored for long periods of time P ROVITAMINS - Provitamins/Vitamin precursors: Inactive form of vitamins that the body can convert to useable form - Food more processed and cooked results in less vitamins V ITAMIN A - Retinoids: Collectively, the 3 active forms of vitamin A o Retinol: Alcohol form  Reproduction and bone health o Retinal: Aldehyde form  Night and color vision o Retinoic Acid: Acid form  Cell growth and differentiation - Carotenoids: Provitamin of retinoids - Liver stores more than 90% of Vitamin A o As Retinyl esters - Retinol-Binding Protein: Transports retinol from liver - Vitamin A helps with vision: o Cornea: Transparent outer surface of eye o Retina: Lining back of eye consisting of rods and cones o Rods: Cells reactive to dim lights o Cones: Cells reactive to color lights o Opsin: Protein that combines with retinal to form rhodopsin in rod cells o Rhodopsin: Light sensitive pigment; To see dim light o Bleaching Process: Light-stimulated reaction where rod cells lose color as rhodopsin is split into retinal and opsin o Dark Adaption: Process where rhodopsin concentration increases to see images in the dark better o Night Blindness: The inability of the eyes to adjust to dim or color light after exposure to a flash of bright light o Iodopsin: Color-sensitive pigments o Development of highly specific types of stem cells  Stem Cells: Formative cell o Epithelial Cells: Cells that line and protect the external and internal surfaces of the body o Epithelial Tissue: Densely packed epithelial cells which line the body  Goblet Cells: Mucus-secreting cells - Vitamin A also helps with immune function, reproduction and bone health - Retinol Activity Equivalents: Unit of measurement of vitamin A o 1 RAE = 1µg retinol o 900 µg for men o 700 µg for women - International Units: An outdated system to measure vitamin activity, does not consider differences in bioavailability o Recommended daily value is 5000 IU for Vitamin A - Preformed Vitamin A: Retinyl esters, The storage form of retinoids o 90% of vitamin A from retinyl esters, mostly from animals o 10% of vitamin A from retinol o Best sources from dark-green and yellow-orange vegetables o Body only absorbs about 75% of retinyl esters - Too much Vitamin A: o Death o Liver damage o Bone Fracture o Skin Disorders o Birth Defects  Teratogen: Any substance that causes birth defects o (Tolerable Upper Intake Level: 3000µg) - Too little Vitamin A: o Night Blindness o Infection o Death o Xerophthalmia: Dries the cornea and mucous membranes of the eye o Hyperkeratosis: Hair follicles on the ski
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