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Chapter 12

BPK 110 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Iron Poisoning, Myelin, Red Blood Cell


Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 110
Professor
Leah Esplen
Chapter
12

Page:
of 5
KIN 110 CHAPTER 12 Trace Minerals
WHAT ARE TRACE ELEMENTS
- Dietary requirements less than 100mg a day
- Total amount found in body less than 5grams
- Sources: Liver
IRON
- 4th most abundant mineral
- Most common deficiency in world
o 6-24month old children
- 80% hemoglobin, 20% myoglobin and enzymes
- 3.8g men, 2.3 women
- 2 types of iron: Hemeiron (animal sources, 2-3 times more absorbed) and
nonheme (plant sources)
- RDA: 8mg men, 18mg pregnant women
- Hemochromatosis: Disease of excess iron absorption
o Inherited Disorder
- Changes to ferrous iron and ferric iron
o Ferrous Iron: Reduced form of iron most commonly in food
o Ferric Iron: Oxidized form of iron which may be bound to
transferring for transport
o Controlled by gastric acid
- Functions
o Oxygen Transport
Iron is a component of two heme proteins, hemoglobin and
myoglobin (oxygen transporting protein of muscle that
resembles blood hemoglobin in function)
Hemeglobin transports oxygen in blood
Myoglobin facilitates movement of oxygen into muscle cells
o Enzymes
Cytochromes: Heme-containing compounds critical to the
electron transport chain
Cofactor for antioxidant enzymes
o Immune Function
o Brain Function
Myelinization: Development of myelin sheath around nerves
- Regulation
o Absorbed in intestine
o Stored as ferritin or hemosiderin
o Carried away by transferrin
- Factors Affecting Iron Absorption
o Inhibitors:
Fiber & Phytate
Calcium and Phosphorus (milk/dairy)
Tannis
Polyphenols
Oxalate
o Enhancers:
Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid
Factor in meat
HCL
Citric, malic and tartaric acid
o Zinc competes with iron for absorption
o Progression of Iron Deficiency Stages
1. Depletion of iron stores
2. Depletion of functional and transport iron
Transferrin Saturation: Where transferring has vacant
iron-binding sites
Protoporphyrin: Chemical complex which combines
with iron to form heme
3. Iron-deficiency Anemia
Hemotocrit: Concentration of red blood cell in blood is
low
o Toxicity
Iron poisoning in children
Iron Overload: Toxicity from excess iron
ZINC
- Deficiencies lead to hypogonadism: poorly developed genitals
- Geophagia: Eating of clay
- RDA: 11mg males, 8mg females, 11mg pregnant, 12mg lactation
- Functions
o Enzymes
Metalloproteins: Protein with a mineral element
Structural integrity and function
o Nucleic Acid Metabolism
Gene reproduction and expression
o Immune System
Immune response
o Vision
May show signs of night blindness
Activitates vitamin A
o Gene Regulation
- Regulation
o Phylate and fiber inhibit zinc absorption
o No long term store house of zinc
o Intake in intestine
o Bone and muscle contain 90% of zinc
- Sources
o Red meat, seafood, oysters, clams
- Deficiency
KIN 110 CHAPTER 12 Trace Minerals
o Dietary deficiency
o Increased requirements
o Malabsorption
o Increased losses
- Toxicity
o Decreased immune function
o Elevates LDL and decreases HDL
SELENIUM
- Keshan Disease: Selenium deficiency disease that impairs the structure and
function of the heart
- RDA: 55mg men and women
- Component of glutathione peroxidases
- Functions
o Selenomethionine: Storage form of selenium
o Selenocysteine: Active form of selenium
o Breakdown of fatty acids
o Eliminates highly reactive radicals
o Immune system
- Dietary Recommendation
o Daily Value: 70µg
o RDA: 55µg
- Sources
o Organ meats and seafood
IODINE
- Goiter: Swelling of the thyroid gland, visible swelling at the front neck
- Functions
o Component of thyroid hormones: T3 and T4
o Thyroid hormones control body temperature, metabolic rate,
reproduction and growth
- Dietary Recommendation
o RDA: 150 µg
- Sources
o Ocean, seafood, iodine levels in soil
- Deficiency
o Goiter
COPPER
- Functions
o Antioxidant
o Electron transport chain
o Ceruloplasmin: Enzyme for the oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion,
enabling iron to bind to transferrin
- Dietary Recommendation
o Daily Value: 2mg
- Sources