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Chapter 12

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Leah Esplen

KIN 110 – CHAPTER 12 – Trace Minerals W HAT ARE T RACE ELEMENTS - Dietary requirements less than 100mg a day - Total amount found in body less than 5grams - Sources: Liver IRON th - 4 most abundant mineral - Most common deficiency in world o 6-24month old children - 80% hemoglobin, 20% myoglobin and enzymes - 3.8g men, 2.3 women - 2 types of iron: Hemeiron (animal sources, 2-3 times more absorbed) and nonheme (plant sources) - RDA: 8mg men, 18mg pregnant women - Hemochromatosis: Disease of excess iron absorption o Inherited Disorder - Changes to ferrous iron and ferric iron o Ferrous Iron: Reduced form of iron most commonly in food o Ferric Iron: Oxidized form of iron which may be bound to transferring for transport o Controlled by gastric acid - Functions o Oxygen Transport  Iron is a component of two heme proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin (oxygen transporting protein of muscle that resembles blood hemoglobin in function)  Hemeglobin transports oxygen in blood  Myoglobin facilitates movement of oxygen into muscle cells o Enzymes  Cytochromes: Heme-containing compounds critical to the electron transport chain  Cofactor for antioxidant enzymes o Immune Function o Brain Function  Myelinization: Development of myelin sheath around nerves - Regulation o Absorbed in intestine o Stored as ferritin or hemosiderin o Carried away by transferrin - Factors Affecting Iron Absorption o Inhibitors:  Fiber & Phytate  Calcium and Phosphorus (milk/dairy)  Tannis  Polyphenols  Oxalate o Enhancers:  Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid  Factor in meat  HCL  Citric, malic and tartaric acid o Zinc competes with iron for absorption o Progression of Iron Deficiency Stages  1. Depletion of iron stores  2. Depletion of functional and transport iron  Transferrin Saturation: Where transferring has vacant iron-binding sites  Protoporphyrin: Chemical complex which combines with iron to form heme  3. Iron-deficiency Anemia  Hemotocrit: Concentration of red blood cell in blood is low o Toxicity  Iron poisoning in children  Iron Overload: Toxicity from excess iron Z INC - Deficiencies lead to hypogonadism: poorly developed genitals - Geophagia: Eating of clay - RDA: 11mg males, 8mg females, 11mg pregnant, 12mg lactation - Functions o Enzymes  Metalloproteins: Protein with a mineral element  Structural integrity and function o Nucleic Acid Metabolism  Gene reproduction and expression o Immune System  Immune respo
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