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Chapter 5

KIN 140 Chapter 5: Personal Nutrition

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Diana Bedoya

Chapter 5: Personal Nutrition • Nutrition: the field that explores the connections between our bodies and the foods we eat, our daily diet effects how long and well we live NUTRIENTS • Everyday your body needs certain essential nutrients that it cannot manufacture itself  essential nutrients: provide energy, build and repair body tissues, and regulate body functions • 6 classes of essential nutrients 1. Water 2. Protein 3. Carbohydrates 4. Fats 5. Vitamins 6. Minerals • Macronutrients: nutrients required by the human body in the greatest amounts  3 essential macronutrients: Carbohydrates, proteins, fats  the amount of energy that can be derived from the macronutrients is measured in calories • Micronutrients: nutrients our bodies need only in very small amounts  2 essential micronutrients: vitamins and minerals • An individual’s need for macronutrients depends on how much energy he/she expends • Because fats, carbohydrates, and protein can all serve as sources of energy, they can, to some extent, substitute for one another in providing calories WATER • performs many essential functions: - carry nutrients, - maintains temperature - lubricates joints - helps with digestion - rids the body of waste through urine - contribute to the production of sweat • Can lower risk of kidney stones, colon cancer and bladder cancer • Can lose lots of water everyday through perspiration, urination, bowel movements, breathing  lose more if you exercise, live in a dry climate/high altitude, drink lost of caffeine or alcohol, skip a meal, or become ill • Minimum 8-12 cups of water each day • Alcohol and caffeine are not recommended because they have diuretic effects which can leave you less hydrated • Can only survive a few days without water PROTEIN • Protein: form the basic framework for muscles, bones, blood, hair and finger nails • Made of combinations of 20 amino acids  must get 9 amino acids from diet because the human body cannot produce them (essential amino acids) • Complete proteins: animal proteins that provide the 9 essential amino acids (meat, fish, poultry, dairy) • Incomplete proteins: have low levels of 1 or 2 essential amino acids and high levels of others (grains, dry beans, nuts) CARBOHYDRATES • Carbohydrates: organic compounds that provide our brain and body with glucose (their basic fuel) • Types: Monnosaccharides (simple) Disaccharides (complex) Polysaccharides (complex) • Monosaccharides: aka simple sugars/simple carbohydrates – consist of 1 simple sugar unit (glucose, fructose, galactose) • Disaccharides: contain 2 sugar units linked by a chemical bond (sucrose, lactose, maltose, table sugar) • Polysaccharides: aka complex carbohydrates – have more than 10 units of sugar (starches and glycogen) • They are metabolized and stored to give metabolically usable energy SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES • Simple carbohydrates: include natural sugars (lactose in milk, fructose in fruit) and added sugars (candy, pop, pastries) COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES • Complex carbohydrates: the foundation of a healthy diet  include grains, cereals, vegetables, beans, nuts • Whole grain = the bran (outer layer), the endosperm (middle layer), the germ (nutrient packed inner layer) FIBRE • Dietary fibre: non-digestible form of carbohydrates occurring naturally in plant foods (leaves, stems, skins, seed, hulls) • Functional fibre: non-digestible carbohydrates that may be added to foods that provide beneficial effects in humans • Total fibre = dietary fibre + functional fibre FATS • Functions: - carry the fat-soluble vitamins A,D,E,K - aid in the absorption of vitamins in the intestine - protect organs from injury - regulate body temperature - play an important role in growth and development • Provide the most calories per gram (2x amount of calories in carbs or proteins) FORMS OF FATS • Unsaturated fats: likely to be liquid at room temperature (oils)  vegetable and fish oils • Saturated fats: likely to be solid (butter)  animal fats • Unsaturated fats - olive, soybean, canola, and other vegetable oils - olive oil is a good fat 0 lower incidence of heart disease - omega-3 fatty acids in deep-water fish (salmon) – lower the risk of cardiovascular disease • Saturated fats - increase the risk of heart disease - should be avoided as much as possible • Trans-fatty acids: partially hydrogenated oils - margarine, foods made with partially hydrogenated oils (baked goods, fried foods), meat - unsaturated but behave like saturated fats  raise cholesterol levels - 2x as damaging as saturated fat  no safe level for trans-fatty acids VITAMINS AND MINERALS • Vitamins: - help put proteins, fats and carbohydrates to use - essential to regulating growth - maintaining tissue - releasing energy from foods - manufacture of blood cells, hormones and other compounds • Fat soluble are absorbed through the intestinal membranes and stored in the body (A,D,E,K) • Water soluble are absorbed directly into the blood and then used up or washed out of the body in urine and sweat • Minerals: - help build bones and teeth - aid in muscle function - help nervous system transmit messages • Ex: major minerals: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium trace minerals: iron, zinc, fluoride Functions Sources Carries nutrients and removes waste; dissolves Water amino acids, glucose and minerals; cleans body Liquids, fruits, vegetables by removing toxins; regulates body temperature Help build new tissue to keep hair, skin and Meats, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, Proteins eyesight healthy; build antibodies, enzymes nuts, cheese, tofu, vegetables, hormones; provide fuel for body pasta, breads, cereal, rice Grains, cereal, pasta, fruits, Carbohydrates Provide energy vegetables, nuts, milk, sugars Sat
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