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BPK 140 (138)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Healthy Eating for Weight Management

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Diana Bedoya

KIN 140 Book Notes An Invitation to Health Reading List 2 Chapter 6; pp. 140-152 THE GLOBAL OBESITY EPIDEMIC - Since 1980, obesity rates have doubled around the world - 2.5 billion adults over 20 years old are obese - 65% of the world’s population live in countries where more people die of complications from being overweight and obese than they do from being underweight - Statistics Canada – lowest obesity rate at age 18-19, then increases What causes obesity? - More calories – many extra calories come from refined carbohydrates o Pop/cola accounts for half of the increase of caloric intake - Bigger portions – size of packaged foods and restaurant meals have increased two to five times - Fast food – frequent fast food eaters gain more weight and develop metabolic abnormalities that increase their risk of Type 2 Diabetes - Hunger and satiety – hormones (insulin, adrenaline) may stimulate or suppress hunger o Appetite – the psychological desire to eat; easily led into temptation o Satiety – the feeling of being full or satisfied - Physical inactivity – research shows a dramatic drop in exercise in University years - Passive entertainment – TV, computers, iPads promote sedentary lifestyle and increases food intake - Prenatal factors – children born to obese women are twice as likely to become overweight o Mother is not eating for two!! She is eating for 1.2 - Developmental factors – number and size of fat cells o Hyperplasia – point in time where number of fat cells increases (often in infancy, puberty) o Hypertrophy – process whereby the fat cells increase in size - Genetics – defective or malfunctioning genes o GAD2 gene – signals the brain to tell us when to eat; may tell us to eat more often o Ob gene – interrupts our body’s built-in “feel full” system and allow us to eat more - Emotional influences –some people who are emotionally fragile cope by overeating - Social networks – more likely to be fat if your close friend/s is/are o This can be explained by (1) eating as something you do together, (2) obesity may seem normal and acceptable - Social determinants – people in lower socio-economic classes tend to be obese WHAT SHOULD I WEIGH? Body Mass Index – a ratio between weight and height, is a mathematical formula that correlates with body fat - Used to identify weight-related health risks in populations and individuals - Underweight – BMI less than 18.5 - Overweight – BMI is 25-29.9 - Obesity – BMI is over 30 - Not a good tool; limitations – inaccurate with muscular athletes, does not reflect body fat, not useful for growing children, pregnant women, and elderly Waist Circumference (WC) – used along with BMI as a practical indicator of risk that is associated with excess abdominal fat - Where you carry your weight is even more important than how much weight you carry - Apple-shaped bodies – carry weight around the waist o More likely than those pear-shaped to have high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of diabetes - Pear-shaped bodies – carries weight in hips and thighs Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR) – divide your waist circumference by your hip circumference - Can be a good predictor of mortality in older people because it takes into account different body structures - WHR greater than 1 for men, or 0.85 in women
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