Chapter 8 – KIN 140
Fertility: Is a mixed blessing for women. It is the ability to reproduce.
Managing Your Fertility
Conception: refers to the fertilization of an ovum by a sperm.
Contraception refers to methods of preventing conception.
Our present methods of contraception fall into 2 categories: reversible methods & permanent methods.
Strictly defined, abstinence means not engaging in intercourse. “Outercourse” means oral sex.
Condom is a sheath of thin latex or other material designed to fit over an erect penis to collect semen
Perfect-use effectiveness rate: The percentage rate of women who will become pregnant in one year
when a contraceptive method is used correctly and consistently.
Typical-use effectiveness rate: The percentage of women who will become pregnant in one year
considered that a contraceptive method is often used incorrectly or inconsistently.
Oral contraceptive pills are pills taken daily for three weeks of the menstrual cycle that prevent
ovulation by regulating hormones.
Progestin-Only Pills or mini-pills contain small doses of progesterone.
Birth Control Patch (Ortho-Evra) which is a patch that contains the hormones progestin and estrogen,
two ingredients also found in birth control pills.
Depo-Provera is an injectable method of birth control that lasts for three months. The main
disadvantage is irregular bleeding.
NuvaRing is a soft, flexible ring inserted into the vagina for three weeks at a time to prevent pregnancy
in the same way that the pill does.
Emergency contraceptive pills can be used when a condom breaks, after a sexual assault, or any time
unprotected sexual intercourse occurs. This is often referred to as “the morning-after pill” which can be
taken up to three days after unprotected intercourse to reduce the risk of pregnancy by 75%.
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Spermicides are substances designed to kill sperm. Jellies and creams are packaged in tubes and foams
are available in aerosol cans. Suppositories are waxy capsules placed deep in the vagina that melt once
they are inside.
Female condom is a single-use polyurethane sheath for internal use by women.
Diaphragm: A latex, saucer-shaped device designed to cover the cervix and block to the uterus; should
be used with spermicide.
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a potentially life-threatening disease that occurs when specific bacterial
toxins are allowed to multiply unchecked in wounds or through improper use of tampons or
Cervical cap is a small cup made of latex designed to fit snugly over the entire cervix.
Intrauterine device (IUD): is