Textbook Notes (362,865)
Canada (158,079)
BPK 140 (138)
Chapter 10

Chapter 10.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Penny Deck

Chapter 10 Alcohol: An Overiew Alcohol and the Post-Secondary Student Binge Drinking: Drinking to become intoxicated; 5 drinks in a single sitting for men and 4 drinks for women Physiological and Behavioural Effects of Alcohol Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is a drug produced by fermentation and found in many beverages. Fermentation is the process whereby yeast organisms break down plant sugars to yield ethanol. Distillation is the process whereby mash is subjected to high temperatures to release alcohol vapours, which are then condensed and mixed with water to make the final product. Proof is a measure of the percentage of alcohol in a beverage. The word ‘proof’ comes from “gunpowder proof,” a reference to the gunpowder test, whereby potential buyers tested the distiller’s product by pouring it on gunpowder and attempting to light it. Behavioural Effects Blood alcohol concentration (BAC): is the ration of alcohol to total blood volume; the factor used to measure the physiological and behaviour effects of alcohol. Learned behavioural tolerance is the ability of drinkers to modify their behaviours so that they appear sober even when they have high BAC levels. Absorption and Metabolism The drinker’s blood alcohol concentration depends on: 1. The amount consumed in a given time 2. The drinker’s size, sex, body build, and metabolism 3. The type and amount of food in the stomach Mood also influences the rate of absorption. Consuming fruit sugar may shorten the duration of alcohol’s effect by increasing the rate of elimination from the blood (that is, metabolism). Page 1 Chapter 10 Compared to men, women have half as much alcohol hydrogenase, the enzyme that breaks down alcohol in the stomach bore it has a chance to get to the bloodstream and the brain. Immediate Effects Dehydration is the loss of fluids from body tissues. Cerebrospinal fluid is fluid within and surrounding the brain and spinal cord tissue. Hangover is the physiological reaction to excessive drinking, including such symptoms as headache, upset stomach, anxiety, depression, diarrhea, and thirst. Congeners are forms of alcohol metabolized more slowly than ethanol that produce toxic by-products. Long-Term Effects Effects on the Nervous System: Since alcohol is a CNS depressant, the nervous system is especially sensitive to it. Cardiovascular Effects: Alcohol contributes to high blood pressure and a slightly increased heart rate and cardiac output. Liver Disease: One of the most common diseases related to alcohol abuse is cirrhosis of the liver. One result of heavy drinking is that the liver begins to store fat – a condition known as “fatty liver.” Cirrhosis is the last stage of liver disease associated with chronic heavy use of alcohol, during which liver cells die and damage is permanent. Alcoholic hepatitis is a condition resulting from prolonged use of alcohol in which the liver is inflamed. It can result in death. Cancer: The repeated irritation caused by long-term use of alcohol has been linked to cancers of the esophagus, stomach, mouth, tongue, and liver. Other Effects: An irritant to the gastrointestinal system, alcohol may cause indigestion and heartburn if consumed on an empty stomach. It also damages the mucous membranes and leas to inflammation of the esophagus, chronic stomach irritation, problems with intestinal absorption, and chronic diarrhea. Alcohol abuse is a major cause of chronic inflammation of the pancreas, the organ that produces digestive enzymes and insulin. Page 2 Chapter 10 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder is a broad category of disorders relating to consumption of alcohol during pregnancy; includes fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, partial fetal alcohol effects, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders, and neurobehavioral disorder-alcohol exposed. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a disorder that may result in the fetus if a mother regularly consumes alcohol during pregnancy. Among its effects are mental retardation, small head, tremors, and abnormalities of the face, limbs, heart, and brain. Fetal alcohol effects (FAE) is a syndrome describing children with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure but without all the physical birthweight, irritability, and possible permanent mental impairment. Alcoholism Alcohol abuse (alcoholism) is the use of alcohol that interferes with work, school, or personal relationships or that entails violations of the law. The Causes of Alcoholism Biologic and Family Factors: Research into the hereditary and environmental causes of alcoholism has found higher rates of alcoholism among family members of individuals addicted to alcohol. Individuals categorized with type 1 alcoholism are individuals who had at least one parent who was a problem drinker and grew up in an environment that encourage heavy drinking. Individuals classified as type 2 alcoholism are typically males only. These men are the biological sons of fathers who in addition to being alcoholics have a history of violence and drug use. Social and Cultural Factors: Many individuals begin to drink because of peer pressure – because everyone else is doing it. Others may begin drinking as a way to dull the pain of an acute loss or an emotional or social problem. Family attitudes toward alcohol also influence whether or not a person will develop a drinking problem. Religious people are less prone to alcohol depe
More Less

Related notes for BPK 140

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.