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Chapter 2

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Diana Bedoya

Chapter 2 Psychosocial Health Fundamental Characteristics of Psychosocial Health Do you: Feel comfortable with yourself? -experience a range of human emotions and being able to cope with them in a healthy way Interact well with others? -being concerned about other people, building meaningful relationships, and being comfortable giving and receiving care Meet the demands of adult life? -being able to practice self-care, accept responsibility for one’s actions, manage time and money appropriately, and plan for the future Physiological Health: Mental & Emotional health Mental health (thoughts)-state of emotional and physical well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities to: -perceive reality as it is -respond to life’s challenges -carry out adult responsibilities -develop rational strategies for living -adapt to change and cope with adversity Emotional health-the ability to express feelings and moods through: -understanding that self is not center of universe -ability to respond in a suitable way to distressing situations -sense of control over the mind and body -high level of optimism -passion for work and play Social and Spiritual Health Social health-the ability to interact with the people around us as well as our capability to function as a contributing member of society while having strong social bonds and social support. This includes: -an optimistic sense of trust in others -supportive, constructive, and positive interactions with friends, family, and others -the ability to form friendships -celebrating our diverse society by accepting differences -being open to new experiences with others Spiritual health-the ability to identify our basic purpose in life and to experience the fulfillment of achieving our full potential. This includes: -a belief in what some call a higher power, in someone or something that transcends the boundaries of self -a strong sense of values, morals, and ethics -recognizing individuality and self-worth -a deep understanding of the interconnectedness of humans with each other and with nature -sharing the virtues of hope, faith, and forgiveness Emotional Intelligence-the capacity of people to understand themselves and relate well with others -subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions -may have a larger effect on future success than IQ Five components: self-awareness, altruism, personal motivation, empathy, ability to love Leading a Fulfilling Life Identifying your (actual) needs Clarify your values (the criteria by which you evaluate things, people, events, and yourself) Instrumental values-ways of thinking and acting that we hold important such as being loved and loyal Terminal values-goals, achievements or ideal states that we strive towards such as happiness Figure out your values and live in accordance with them • Carefully consider the consequences of each choice • Choose freely from among all the options • Publically affirm your values by sharing them with others • Act out your values Feel in control Develop autonomy-the ability to draw on internal resources; independence from familial and social influences) Assert yourself-behave in a non-hostile confident manner to make your needs and desire clear to other) Self-efficacy-our belief that we can achieve a desired goal Strengthen your self-esteem (belief and pride in ourselves) Manage your moods (sustained emotional state that colours our view of the world) Make a change and/or do some cognitive reappraisal -if nothing can be done, accept what happened and focus on doing things differently next time -if you can’t identify or resolve the problem responsible for the emotional funk, concentrate on altering your negative feelings Be happy Learn to laugh -laughter stimulates the heart, alters brain wave patterns and breathing rhythms, reduces perceptions of pain, decreases stress related hormones and strengthens the immune system -humour helps channel negative emotions towards a positive effect -humour can relieve pain and help people live with greater joy -laughing expresses honest emotions Move more -exercise is an effective strategy for banishing bad feelings Sleep -essential for functioning at your best Connect with others -become socially responsible, be altruistic Overcome loneliness Face social anxieties Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development • Infant (birth to 18 months): trust vs. mistrust • Early childhood (2 to 3 years): autonomy vs. shame • Preschool (3 to 5 years): initiative vs. guilt • School-age child (6 to 11 years): industry vs. inferiority • Adolescence (12 to 18 years): identity vs. identity diffusion • Young adulthood (19 to 40 years): intimacy vs. isolation • Middle adulthood (49 to 65 years): generativity vs. self-absorption • Late adulthood (65 to death): integrity vs. despair Mentally Healthy Individual Mental Illness-changes in thinking, moods, behaviour that cause significant distress and impair normal functioning -many different forms, severities Approximately 1 in 5 Canadians will experience a mental illness -remainder will be affected by the illness of a family member, friend or colleague Anxiety Disorders-inordinate fears of certain objects or situations -most common form of mental illness Affects approximately 12% of Canadians 2 times higher in women Generalized Anxiety Disorder-chronic, irrational worries about daily events Symptoms include faster heart rate, sweating, increased blood pressure, muscle aches, intestinal pain, irritability, sleep problems, difficulty concentration Treatment may consist of a combination of physiotherapy, behavioral therapy, and anti-anxiety drugs Phobias-intense, irrational fears that are difficult to control -most
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