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BPK 140 (138)
Chapter 4

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Diana Bedoya

Chapter 4 Physical Activity Physical Activity-any type of body movement produced by the skeletal muscles that result in a substantial increase over resting energy expenditure Exercise-planned, structured, repetitive physical activity aimed at improving physical fitness Active Living-a lifestyle which includes the integration of physical activity into a person’s regular daily routine Physical Activity Recommendations for Adults 18-64 and 65+ To achieve health benefits adults aged 18-64 should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more It is also beneficial to add muscle and bone strengthening activities using major muscle group at least 2 days per week More physical activity provides greater health benefits Physical Activity Recommendations for Children and Youth For health benefits, children aged 5-11 and youth aged 12-17 should accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily. This should include: -vigorous intensity activities at least 3 days per week -activities that strengthen muscle and bone at least 3 days per week More daily physical activity provides greater health benefits Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for Children and Youth For health benefits, children aged 5-11 should minimize the time they spend being sedentary each day. This may be achieved by: -limiting recreational screen time to no more than 2 hours per day; lower levels are associated with additional health benefits -limiting sedentary (motorized) transport, extended sitting and time spent indoors throughout the day Being physically inactive is not necessarily the same as being sedentary Sedentary individuals have 50% more health problems than active individuals Break up sitting time Physical Fitness-the ability to respond to routine physical demands with enough reserve energy to cope with a sudden challenge Health-related components include: • aerobic endurance (cardiorespiratory fitness) • muscular strength • muscular endurance • body composition • flexibility Performance-related Components of Fitness • speed-the ability to propel the body or a part of the body rapidly from one point to another • agility-the ability to change your body position and direction quickly and efficiently • balance-the body’s ability to maintain proper equilibrium • reaction time • anaerobic power and capacity-the ability to produce maximum force in the shortest time Benefits of Exercise Better bones -people who don’t exercise tend to have weak and brittle bones Better mental health and functioning -exercise is an effective, but underused treatment for mild to moderate depression and may help in treating other mental disorders -exercising reduces the harmful effects of aging on brain structures as well as on memory and other functions Brighter mood and less stress -exercise boosts mood, increases energy, improves concentration and alertness and increases the ability to hand daily stress Enhanced immunity -exercise reduces stress hormones such a cortisol that can dampen resistance to disease Healthier heart and lungs -exercise reduces the risk of CVD -lowers levels of indicators of increased heart disease risk such as reduced blood clotting, increased HDL, decreased heart rate -heart muscles become stronger, blood is pumped more efficiently, heart rate and resting rate slow down, and blood pressure may drop slightly -lungs become more efficient taking in more oxygen and their vital capacity is increased, providing more energy for you to use Longer and more active life -exercise slows the changes associated with aging Protection from certain cancers -colon, breast, endometrial Protection from Diabetes II -improved insulin sensitivity, reduced weight Protection from obesity -lowers body fat, reduces weight Protection from osteoporosis (a condition in which bones lose their mineral density and become increasingly susceptible to injury) Bone Density vs. Age Individuals typically achieve peak bone mass around age 30; Weight-bearing activity helps promote bone density Exercise Principles Overload-to see improvements in fitness, musculature, need to provide a greater stress or demand on the body than it is accustomed to Progressive overloading-gradually increasing physical challenges to maximize benefits of exercise, while reducing risk -FITT (frequency, intensity, time, type) principle summarizes the dimensions of progressive overloading Reversibility-an individual can lose as much as 50% of fitness improvements within two months of stopping exercise Specificity/SAID Principle (Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demand)-body adapts to particular type of activity or stress imposed upon it Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Metabolism There are two main ways your body pro
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