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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Distance Education

Chapter 1 Promoting Healthy Behaviour Change WHAT IS HEALTHHealth and Sickness Defined by ExtremesBefore late 1800s people viewed health simply as the absence of sicknessResearchers found microorganisms in contaminated water air and human waste which caused the victim illnessesBegan to think about health as good hygieneHealth More Than a StatisticIn early 1900s the leading causes of death were infectious diseases such as tuberculosis pneumonia and influenza and the average life expectancy at birth was only 588 years for men and 606 years for womenImproved sanitation brought about dramatic changes in life expectancy and the development of vaccines and antibiotics added years to the average life spanMortality death rates statistics people live longerMorbidity illness rates people are sick less oftenIn 1947 WHO whose objective is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health defined health as complete physical mental and social wellbeing not merely the absence of disease or infirmityHealth as Wellness Putting Quality into YearsRene Dubos health involves social emotional mental spiritual and biological fitness on the part of the individual which results from adaptations to the environmentHealth dynamic everchanging process of trying to achieve individual potential in the physical social mental occupational emotional environmental and spiritual dimensions 7 componentsWellness similar to health a dynamic everchanging process in which a person attempts to reach his or her potential in each of healths componentsHealth and being well people need to take an honest look at their capabilities and limitations and make an effort to change what is within their controlOptimal health and wellness is not a static state that one achieves but rather an ongoing active process that includes positive attitudes and behaviours in each dimensionHealth Promotion Helping You Stay HealthyHealth promotion combines educational organizational policy financial and environmental supports to enhance healthy lifestyle choices and to help people change negative health attitudes and behavioursPanCanadian Living Strategy was released in 2005Should improve the health status and health outcomes of the Canadian populationShould reduce the current burden and contribute to the efficiency and sustainability of Canadas universal health carecare delivery systemRecognize and address linkages between lifestyle choices and the surrounding social economic and environmental influencesPrimarily emphasizes healthy eating and physical activity and their relationship to healthy weightPrevention The Key to Future HealthPrevention taking action now to avoid becoming sick or less well laterPrimary prevention actions designed to stop problems before they startSecondary prevention intervention early in the development of a health problem to reduce symptoms of to halt its progressionTertiary prevention treatment or rehabilitation efforts aimed at limiting the effects of a disease SEX DIFFERENCESMany diseasesosteoporosis arthritis headaches thyroid disease lupus and Alzheimers disease for example are far more common in women than in menWomen live longer than menDiseases may manifest differently in women than in men4 factors reflecting bias were identified in a study1Androcentricity viewing the world from a male perspective2Overgeneralization study explores issues for one sex and generalize finding for both3Gender insensitivity overlooking sex as an important factor4Double standards evaluation treatment or measurement of identical behaviours traits or situations by different meansIMPROVING YOUR HEALTHBenefits of Achieving Optimal HealthHeart disease and cancer continue to be the leading causes of death for both sexesCardiovascular disease are declining among men and womenAtlantic provinces have higher mortality rates than western provinces and these rates are consistent with the relative prevalence of smoking high blood pressure and obesity in these regionsIncidence rates have declined for most forms of cancer but there have been sizeable increases in the detection of prostate cancerLung cancer have been decliningdecline in smokingBreast cancer is estimated to be the most common newly diagnosed cancer among women while the leading cause of cancer death is still expected to be lung cancerChanging your lifestyle canImprove your health statuesreduce risk for cardiovascular disease cancer etcIncreasing your lifespan and improving your quality of lifeHave greater energy levels and increased capacity for and interest in having fun Get a stronger immune system which enhances your ability to fight infectionsImprove your selfconfidence selfconcept selfesteem and selfefficacyEnhanced relationships with others due to better communication and quality timeAn improved ability to control and manage stressA reduced reliance on the healthcare systemImproved cardiovascular functioningIncreased muscle tone strength flexibility and endurance which results in improved physical appearance performance and selfesteemPositive outlook on lifeImproved environmental sensitivity responsibility and behavioursEnhanced levels of spiritual health awareness and feelings of oneness with yourself others and the environmentMaking HealthWise ChoicesKey behaviours will help people live longer such asGetting a good nights sleep 69 hoursMaintaining healthy eating habits which includesEating breakfastSpreading caloric intake throughout the dayReducing intake of fat salt sugar and processed foods more vegetable and fruitsMaintaining weightParticipating in regular physical activitiesRegular brushing and flossing of teethPracticing safer sexAvoid tobacco productsLimiting intake of alcoholRegular selfexams and medical checkupsWearing your seat beltLife adding to yearsControlling the real and imaginary stressors in lifeMaintaining meaningful relationshipsMaking time for yourself and being as kind to yourself as you are to others
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