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BPK 140 (138)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Physical Activity for Fitness, Health, and Athletic Performance

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Diana Bedoya

KIN 140 Book Notes An Invitation to Health Reading List 1 Chapter 4; pp. 79-86, p. 88, pp. 90-93, pp. 95-101 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY any body movement produced by the skeletal muscles that result in a substantial increase over resting energy expenditure Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) Healthy Living Unit goals - Funding nationally healthy living projects - Improving collaboration between federal, provincial, and territorial governments with regard to healthy living initiatives - Collecting and sharing knowledge about healthy living so national, provincial, and municipal agencies can make informed program decisions when implementing healthy living strategies Five major risk factors for heart disease 1. Smoking 2. Physical inactivity 3. Obesity 4. High blood pressure 5. Lack of fruit and vegetable consumption Healthy Living Unit (PHAC) + Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology: Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines For Adults aged 18-64 years old - 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per week, in bouts of 10 minutes or more - Muscle and bone strengthening activities using major muscle groups at least 2 days a week For Adults aged 65 years and older - Same recommendation as adults aged 18-64 years old, but with caution extended to those with poor mobility - Enhance balance and prevent falls Statistics - Only 15.4% of Canadian adults are meeting the 150 minutes of MVPA per week - 48% of Canadians aged 20 and older are moderately active participating in 30 minutes od MVPA daily Physical Fitness ability to respond to routine physical demands with enough reserve energy to cope with a sudden challenge - You are fit if you meet your daily energy needs, can handle unexpected extra demands, and are protecting yourself against potential heart problems, such as heart disease - Important for both health and athletic or sport performance Five health-related components of physical fitness - Aerobic or cardiorespiratory endurance ability of the heart to pump blood through the body efficiently so a person can sustain prolonged rhythmic activity o i.e. brisk walking, jogging, running, swimming, cycling o VO2 max or maximal oxygen uptake test maximum amount of oxygen that an individual is able to use during intense exercise Measured in milliliters of oxygen used in one minute per kilogram of body weight The more oxygen you are able to use in high-level exercise, the more energy you can produce o Healthy aerobic exercise means working our strenuously without pushing your VO2 max level or to the point of breathlessness - Muscular strength the force within the muscles o Measured by the absolute maximum weight that a person can lift, push, or press in one effort o Strong muscles help keep the skeleton in proper alignment, improve posture, prevent back and leg aches, etc o Muscle mass increases along with strength, which makes for a healthier body composition and higher metabolic rate - Muscle endurance ability to perform repeated muscular effort o Measured by counting how many times a person can lift, push, or press a given weight o Helps in everyday movement, posture, and sports - Flexibility the range of motion around specific joints o Depends on many factors: age, sex, posture, how muscular you are, amount of body fat o As children develop, their flexibility increases until adolescence o Gradual loss of joint mobility begins and continues through adulthood - Body composition the ratio of fat and lean body tissue Exercise physical activity that you structure and repeat for the purpose of conditioning your body o Used to improve health and maintain fitness o The miracle medicine for a long and healthy life Physical Conditioning (or training) gradual building up of the body to enhance physical fitness (and its five components) Functional Fitness performance of daily activities - Exercises that mimic job tasks or everyday movements can improve an individuals balance, coordination, strength, and endurance _____________________________________________________________________________________ Athletic Performance Sport leisure-time physical activities that are planned, structured, and competitive Agility ability to change your body position and direction quickly and efficiently - Important in many sports such as basketball, tennis, etc - Agility tests include running forward, backward, then performing crossover steps Balance the bodys ability to maintain proper equilibrium - Necessary in day-to-day life as well as ports such as skiing or gymnastics Coordination the integration of nervous and muscular systems, which allows for harmonious movements - Important for sports like baseball, which involve throwing, catching, and hitting Power the ability to produce the maximum force in the shortest time ***Has two components - Speed ability to propel the body or body part rapidly from one point to another - Force an influence that causes body movement, often describing pulling or pushing Plyometrics specialized, high-intensity training exercises that develop athletic performance skills - Include hops, jumps, bounding movements, jumping on and off a box _____________________________________________________________________________________Benefits of Exercise - Improves your mood, reduces psychological symptoms, and sharpens your thinking - Increases your respiratory capacity - Reduces your risk of heart disease - Improves your digestion and your fat metabolism - Lowers your body fat and reduces your weight - Reduces the risk of breast, ovarian, and colon cancer - Strengthens your bones and increases joint flexibility - Improves your circulation - Increases your muscle tone and strength Osteoporosis a condition in which bones lose their mineral density and become increasingly susceptible to injury - Women are more vulnerable because they have less bone density to begin with - Close to 25% of women aged 50-70, and 50% over the age of 70% will develop osteoporosis - A minimum of two 45-minute exercise sessions per week may protect the bones of post- menopausal women Better Mental Health and Functioning - Can treat mild to moderate depression - Eases certain symptoms, such as agitation and hallucinations, in schizophrenic patients - Depression: exercise proved as effective medication in improving mood and also helped prevent relapse - Improving cardiorespiratory fitness reduces harmful effects of agin
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