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BPK 140 (138)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Diana Bedoya

KIN 140 Book Notes An Invitation to Health Reading List 1 Chapter 2; pp. 30-41, 43-49 PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH - Complex interaction of processes that are both psychological and social in nature and encompass our emotional, mental, social, and spiritual states - Three fundamental characteristics for psychosocial health o Feel comfortable about yourself – cope with feelings in a healthy way o Interact well with others – concern for others, build meaningful relationships, etc o Meet the demands of adult life – practice self-care, responsibility for one’s actions, manage time and money appropriately Mental Health – state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life - Describes our ability to… (1) perceive reality as it is, (2) respond to challenges, (3) carry out adult responsibilities, (4) develop rational strategies for living, (5) adapt to change and cope with adversity - Mentally healthy Individual o Establishes and maintains close relationships o Carries out responsibilities o Values himself/herself o Pursues work that suits talent and training o Accepts own limitations and possibilities o Feels a sense of fulfillment in daily living o Perceives reality as it is Mental Illness – characterized by alterations in mood, thinking, or behavior associated with significant distress, dysfunction, and impaired functioning - Includes mood disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and eating disorders (see page 5) - Affects the mind and body - Anxiety can lead to asthma, skin conditions, and digestive disorders Emotional Health – generally refers to feelings and moods - Emotions are a conscious mental reaction toward a specific object or person - Often accompanied by physiological and behavioral changes in our bodies - Four types of emotion (by Richard Lazarus) o Emotions that result from harm, loss, or threats (i.e. fear, anger) o Emotions resulting from benefits (i.e. joy, delight) o Borderline emotions (i.e. hope, compassion) o Complex emotions (i.e. love, grief) - Characteristics of an emotionally healthy individual o Understanding that the self is not the center of the universe o The ability to respond in a suitable way to situations or events that are either distressing or amazing o A sense of control over the mind and body that leads to self-enhancing choices and decisions o A high level of optimism o A passion for work and play - Emotional Intelligence – or emotional quotient (EQ) o Important to balance our intellect with our emotions (Robert Blank) o High levels of emotional intelligence may make an even greater difference in a person’s personal and professional success o Five components of EQ  Self-awareness  Altruism  Personal motivation  Empathy  Ability to love and be loved o Is not fixed at birth Social Health – ability to interact with the people around us as well as our capability to function as a contributing member of society while supporting and helping others to do the same - Key foundation to society’s social health: equal access to assistance, goods, services, programs that help individuals add to the quality of their lives and their communities - Characteristics of social health o An optimistic sense of trust in others o Supportive, constructive, and positive interactions with friends, family, and others o The ability to form relationships o Celebrating our diverse society by accepting differences o Being open to new experiences with others - Two important elements o Social support – care and security that family, friends, colleagues, etc provide us  Five types of social support  Emotional – reassurance  Esteem – value and respect  Network – sense of belonging in a group  Appraisal – positive feedback  Altruistic support – perception that doing something for others is worthwhile  Critical component in maintaining health and well-being o Social bonds – degree to which people are integrated into and attached to their families, communities, and society  Four social bonds that reduce risk of the adoption of unhealthy lifestyle choices  Attachment, involvement, investment, and belief Spiritual Health – ability to identify our basic purpose in life and to experience the fulfillment of achieving our full potential - Spiritual health includes o A belief in a higher power, in someone or something that transcends the power of self o Strong sense of values, morals, and ethics o Recognizing individuality and self-worth o A deep understanding of the interconnectedness of humans with each other and with nature o Sharing the virtues of hope, faith, and forgiveness - Spiritual Intelligence – capacity to sense, understand, and tap into the highest parts of ourselves and the world around us o Others might define this as intuition o Centers on the discovery of an inner wisdom o Listening less to your head and more to your heart is the way to spiritual intelligence Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (from top to bottom) - Self-actualization – the fulfillment of one’s potential - Self-esteem – respect for self, respect of others - Love and affection – ability to give and receive affection; feeling of belonging - Safety-security – ability to protect oneself from harm - Physiological needs – needs for food, water, clothing, shelter, sleep, sexual expression Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Age Stage Infancy Birth to 18 months Basic trust vs. mistrust Early Childhood 2 to 3 years old Autonomy vs. shame Pre-school 3 to 5 years old Initiative vs. guilt School-age child 6 to 11 years old Industry vs. inferiority Adolescence 12 to 18 years old Identity vs. identity diffusion Young Adulthood 19 to 40 years old Intimacy vs. isolation Middle Adulthood 49 to 65 years old Generativity vs. self-absorption Late Adulthood 65 to death Integrity vs. despair Values – the criteria by which you evaluate things, people, events, and yourself represents what’s most important to you - Provides guidelines for making decisions that are right for you - If understood and applied, they give your life meaning and structure - Two types of values (according to Milton Rokeach) o Instrumental values – represents ways of thinking and acting that we hold important  i.e. loyalty, honesty, etc o Terminal values – represent goals, achievements, or ideal states to strive towards, such as happiness - Values reflect the way we live day by day Self-esteem – belief or pride in ourselves - Not based on external factors i.e. wealth or beauty - Learned helplessness – blaming other for our failures and transferring our responsibility for adopting healthy lifestyle choices over to society - Positive psychology -- emphasizes building on personal strengths rather than treating weaknesses - Proven to be one of the best predictors of college and university adjustm
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