Textbook Notes (362,730)
Canada (158,028)
BPK 140 (138)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Personal Stress Management

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 140
Diana Bedoya

KIN 140 Book Notes An Invitation to Health Reading List 1 Chapter 3; pp. 58-71 WHAT IS STRESS – physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension and may be a factor in disease causation - An internal state of arousal - Physical state of the body to various demands - Non-specific response of the body to any demand made upon it (Dr. Hans Selye) Stressors – the things that upset or excite us - Can be tangible i.e. dealing with an angry friend, missing the bus, etc - Can be intangible i.e. includes emotions such as when you are participating in a competition Eustress – ‘eu’prefix for ‘good’ in Greek - Challenges us to grow, adapt, and find creative solutions in our lives - E.g. birth, weddings, reunions, etc - Ideal level of stress – should be just high enough to motivate us to satisfy our needs and not so high that it interferes with our ability to reach our fullest potential Distress – negative effects of stress that can destroy or deplete life energy Five Categories of Stressors 1. Acute time-limited stressors – anxiety-provoking situations e.g. public speaking 2. Brief naturalistic stressors – more serious challenge e.g. deadline for term paper 3. Stressful event sequences – difficult consequences of natural disaster or traumatic occurrence; though stressful at the time, the difficulties will end at some point in the future e.g. death of a friend or relative 4. Chronic stressors – ongoing demands by life-changing circumstances that do not have a clear end point e.g. permanent disability or caring for relative with Alzheimers 5. Distant stressors – traumatic experience that occurred long ago; will continue to have a psychological and emotional impact e.g. child abuse or combat experience (PTSD) WHAT CAUSES STRESS? General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) – a biological theory - Homeostasis – physiological equilibrium that our body strives to maintain o Stressors disturb this equilibrium and the body attempts to restore it by means of an adaptive response - 3 stages of GAS o Alarm, Resistance, and Exhaustion (described in Figure 3-1 on the right) Cognitive-Transactional Model of Stress and Coping – a non biological theory (Richard Lazarus and Susan Folkman) - Looks at the relation between stress and health - Stress as neither an environmental stimulus, characteristic of a person, nor a response, but a relationship between demands and the power to deal with them without unreasonable and destructive costs - Steps of the model: o Primary appraisal process – where an individual will perceive the event as a threat or a challenge o Secondary appraisal process – will take over and a comprehensive assessment of both the person’s ability to manage the threat or challenge and their coping resources will occur o Coping responses – will be initiated and the stress outcomes of the event will depend on the effectiveness on the cognitive appraisal and the person’s coping process o The stress outcome will then feed back into the cognitive appraisal stage more if it needs to be done to resolve the situation - Forms of coping o Planful problem solving – may have a healthy effect on the emotion response o Confrontive coping and distancing – may make things worse PHYSICAL HEALTH AND STRESS Stress and the Immune System Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) – focuses on the relationship between our brain’s response to stress and our immune system - Stress triggers complex changes in our body’s endocrine (hormone-secreting) system Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) – regulates our unconscious bodily function - Fight or flight reaction - Being stressed for too long can compromise the immune system - Two separate branches o Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) – initiates the release of stress hormones  Increase heart rate and respiratory rate  Hypothalamus  adrenal glands  epinephrine/adrenaline • Initiates an increase in blood flow  Hypothalamus  pituitary glands adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)  cortisol • Hormone that helps release endorphins which help pain relief  Blood diverted away from the digestive system to save energy o Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) – slows down o
More Less

Related notes for BPK 140

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.