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Chapter 3

Ch. 3 notes from textbook

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 142
Tony Leyland

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CH. 3
Physical anthropology study related to biological growth and development. The
meaningful understanding of the nature, distribution, and
significance of biological variation in humans.
Anthropometry science branch concerned w/ biological growth and body
Growth curve pattern of physical change in individuals or groups.
Distance curve: height vs. time (years)
Velocity curve: growth rate vs. time (years)
Puberty Period of the pubescent growth spurt. Stage where individual
becomes physiologically capable of sexual reproduction
Pubescent growth spurt landmark in physical growth in regard to sex differences and
motor performance. Controlled by genetic factors and
Sex hormones produced: androgens, estrogens. Females only
produce progesterone. Androgens and estrogens interact with
growth hormone (GH) to start developmental changes.
Males produce more androgens, females more estrogens
Menarche Females’ first menstrual flow. Average age is 12.5 (96%
betw. 11 and 15) when height has peaked.
Physique a composite of body proportion relationships and body
composition characteristics.
Midgrowth spurt small growth spurt around age 7
Ossification transformation of cartilage to true bone
Osteoporosis loss of bone material to the point where bones have trouble
supporting body
Body mass
Chronological age regular age relative to days alive
Biological age using estimates of morphological age, dental age, sexual age,
and skeletal age.
Morphological age: height
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Dental age: teeth, eruption of temporary and permanent
teeth. Using x-rays to look at teeth?? Permanent teeth appear
from 6 to 13 years.
Sexual age: maturity of primary and secondary sexual
Skeletal age: x ray bones of left wrist and hand. Also, used
are leg, knee , and foot. Look at progressive enlargement and
change in shape of ossification centers, then compare with
standardized skeletal ages w/ six month and one year
intervals. Females are 20% more advanced skeletons.
Secular trend trends over a long period of time.
Heavier, taller, bigger, more fat, less physically active
*Prenatal period = time of greatest variation in human growth and development
oSperm cell unites w/ ovum
Germinal Period:
oLasts 14 days after conception
oThe 23 chromosomes from both parents combine to make 46
oContinued cell differentiation, and attachment of ovum to uterus wall
oForms spherical mass, then separates to inner and outer segments. Outer
segment becomes mother-fetus barrier, and inner mass becomes fetus
Embryonic Period:
o2 to 8 weeks after conception
o???Embryonic disk???? folds and forms distinct cell layers called an
oHuman form begins to take shape
oCNS is relatively developed
oGrowth begins w/ cephalocaudal pattern (starts at head and proceeds
down to neck, shoulders, and trunk.)
oAlso, proximodistal growth (from body midline centered around spine and
heart, outward to extremities: shoulders, arms, and hands)
Fetal Period:
oBegins in 8th week. Embryo becomes recognizable human. Lasts until birth
oMonth 3: about 3 inches and 1 ounce (28g)
oSex organs developed
oFlexible cargilage replaced by bone (ossification)
o1st muscle movements in mouth and jaw
oWeek 9: arms and legs can respond
oWeek 16:
Significant growth
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