BPK 143 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Cardiac Output, Overtraining, Skeletal Muscle
SchoolSimon Fraser University
DepartmentBiomedical Physio & Kines
Course CodeBPK 143
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1. Distinguish between physical activity and exercise.
Physical Activity: Any activity above resting levels, such as going for a walk or gardening.
Exercise: A subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, such as swimming for 30 minutes three times per
will not necessarily improve your fitness levels, whereas
is a term used to suggest an intensity of activity
that will improve fitness components.
2. Describe the four principles of physiologic conditioning.
Overload Principle: Stress the bodies system (increase frequency while maintaining intensity or increase instensity while maintaining
duration or increase duration while maintaining intensity).
Specificity Principle: Specific exercise elicits specific adaptations that create specific training.
Reversibility Principle: Once you have reached a desirable level of physical fitness, you must exercise to maintain that level (prevent
Individual Differences Principle: There are limits to the amount they can adapt. Genetic, age and gender are factors.
3. In terms of aerobic training effects, what is the most important factor—training intensity, duration, or frequency? Explain.
Training intensity is the most important factor in determining the training effect, since low intensity doesn’t stress the bodies system
to get the training effect.
4. Explain the difference between the maximal heart rate and the heart rate reserve methods for determining exercise intensity.
Maximal Heart Rate: 220 minus age (60-90%). Swimming: 205 – Age.
Heart Rate Reserve: Maximal Heart Rate – Resting Heart Rate (50-85%)
More accurately reflects the percentage of your aerobic capacity at which you are working. Your maximum heart rate may be much
lower or higher. Therefore, only 68.3% of the population has a maximum heart rate that lies between 208 and 232 minus their age.
For this reason, if you find that you are exercising at the high end of the range and yet not feeling your exercise intensity is very hard,
it may be that your maximum heart rate is higher than average.
5. Define the Karvonen formula.
Maximal Heart Rate – Resting Heart Rate (50-85%)
220 - 22 = 198 bpm 198 (maximal) – 60 (resting) = 138 bpm
Lower level of target heart rate range: 60 + (0.50 x 138) = 129 bpm
Upper level of target heart rate range: 60 + (0.85 x 138) = 177 bpm
Target heart rate range = 129 - 177 bpm / 10-second target heart rate = 22 - 30 beats
6. What does RPE mean?
Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) / BORG SCALE, which is a subjective measure for estimating the intensity of your exercise.
7. Describe how to use the talk test.
A subjective technique that is similar to the RPE. If your breathing is so laboured that you cannot carry on a conversation properly,
your exercise intensity is too high for a sustained aerobic effort, and if you can sing you working at too low a level.
8. Is it proper to apply an exercise prescription based on heart rate for running and cycling to swimming? Explain.
Because swimming is a non-weight-bearing activity and is not done in an upright position, it elicits a lower heart rate per minute.
When lying in the water, you do not need to pump blood upward against gravity to your head. The water may reduce the need for
the heart to pump a large percentage of the cardiac output to the skin, thus lowering the work of the heart.
9. List three common training errors.
Not planning effectively / Not individualizing your program / Not keeping a record of training performance / Doing to much too soon
/ Not warming up effectively / Having unrealistic expectations.
10. List three symptoms of overtraining.
Sudden weight loss / Chronic fatigue / Insomnia / Lack of appetite / Increase in morning pulse rate of more than 5 beats per minute.
11. Describe some common
of a warm-up program and a good cool-down program.
Warm-Up: Breaking a mild sweat (specific stretching for sport specific activity).
Cool-Down: Keep moving until heart rate drops below 100 (stretching).
12. Describe physiological and psychological
of a warm-up prior to exercise session.
Permits a gradual increase in metabolic requirements, which improves cardiorespiratory performance / An increase in body
temperature facilitates enzyme activity in skeletal muscle, and increases blood flow and oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle / Prevents
high muscle acidity early in the exercise session / Causes a gradual increase in deep muscle temperature / Improves neural
transmission for motor unit recruitment / Lessens the danger of inadequate blood flow to the heart / Provides a screening mechanism
for potential musculoskeletal or metabolic problems that may be problematic at higher exercise intensities / Lubricates joints /
Provides psychological preparation for the event.
13. Describe the physiological and psychological
of a cool-down after an exercise period.
Maintains the venous return to the heart and brain. This prevents post-exercise venous pooling and too rapid a drop in blood
pressure, which reduces the likelihood of post-exercise light-headedness and fainting / Maintains a large blood supply to the muscle,
which will help reduce acidity levels / Hastens the removal of lactate from the working muscles / Reduces the immediate post-
exercise tendency for muscles to spasm or cramp / Allows heart rate, oxygen uptake, and body temperature to gradually return to
resting levels / Reduces concentrations of exercise hormones.
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