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Chapter 4

BPK 143 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness, Muscle Tone, Viscosity

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

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1. List benefits of resistance training.
Increases In:
Muscular Strength / Muscular Endurance / Strength Of Bones / Tensile Strength Of Ligaments And Tendons / Muscle Mass
(Hypertrophy) / Stamina (Duration Of Effort Before Exhaustion) / Flexibility (Assuming Full Range Of Movement During Training) /
Speed And Power / Blood Volume And Haemoglobin (With Endurance/Circuit Training) / Muscle Enzyme Levels / Skill (Free
Weight Programs) / Maximal Work Capacity / Equalization Of Muscle Development.
Decrease In:
Body Fat / Stress And Tension / Resting Heart Rate (With Endurance/Circuit Training).
Helps To:
Prevent Injuries / Rehabilitate Injuries / Improve Cardio-Respiratory Function (With Endurance/Circuit Training) / Alter Metabolism
To Improve Caloric Utilization / Facilitate Quicker Recovery From Workouts And Competitions / Increase Self-Image And
Confidence / Improve Appearance / Increase Feeling Of Well-Being / Induce Fatigue And Relaxation (Help Sleep Patterns)
2. List disadvantages of resistance training.
Increase Risk Of:
Muscle And Tendon Injuries / Bone And Ligament Injuries / Low Back Injuries / Contact With Weight Plates Causing Injury / Large
Transient Increases In Systolic Blood Pressure (Sbp), Which May Be A Problem For Some Individuals. However, As With Most
Physical Training, Regular Strength Training May Reduce Resting Sbp / Excessive Fatigue Due To Overtraining / Possible
Inducement To Take Ergogenic Aids Such As Anabolic Steroids And Creatine Monohydrate
3. Define muscular power.
The ability to produce force quickly. Calculated by (force x speed) of the muscular contraction. Power can also be calculated by
measuring the work done (force x distance) per unit time (or work divided by time).
4. Distinguish between muscular strength and muscular endurance.
Muscular Strength: The greatest amount of force that a muscle or muscle group can produce in a single maximal effort
Muscular Endurance: The ability of a muscle group to perform repeated contractions against a light load for an extended period of
5. Distinguish between isokinetic, isotonic, and isometric contractions.
Isometric Contraction: Muscular contraction with no change in length of the muscle.
Isokinetic Contraction: Contraction where the muscle shortens or lengthens at a constant velocity.
Isotonic Contraction: Contraction that require constant tension on the muscle.
Concentric Contractions: When the muscle is contracting and shortening.
6. Define the terms agonist and antagonist.
Agonist: A muscle that causes the motion of the exercise. So the biceps is an agonist in the biceps curls
Antagonist: A muscle that can move the joint opposite to the movement produced by the agonist. The triceps is the antagonist for the
biceps curl.
7. What is a bi-articulate muscle? A muscle that crosses two joints
8. Compare the characteristics of fast-twitch motor units versus slow-twitch motor units.
Fast twitch motor can generate energy rapidly for quick forceful contractions.
Slow twitch motors are adapted for prolonged work and used extensively for aerobic activities.
9. Which skeletal muscle fibre type is best suited for being used in endurance events such as the running 5,000-meter race? Explain.
Slow twitch fibres are best suited since they have large concentration of myoglobin which helps deliver oxygen for aerobic exercises.
10. Which skeletal muscle fibre type is best suited for being used in sprint and short durance power events such as the 100-meter sprint
and throwing? Explain.
Fast twitch fibres are best suited since they can contract rapidly for quick and large force.
11. Name two muscles that are part of the antigravity musculature. Erectus spinae, gluteus maximus
12. What two neural factors influence muscle force production?
Muscle size, Time course of contraction, Muscle activation, Length-tension relationship, Veolocity-tension relations.
13. Describe the mechanisms that a whole muscle uses to vary the force of contraction from slight to maximal.
Recruit st fibres first for light force then recuit the ft fibres for the maximal force.
14. Explain the all-or-nothing-law in the context of muscle contraction.
It is not possible to fire all of the fibres within a muscle by a small amount.
15. Briefly explain why a muscle can produce the greatest amount of force when it is at resting length.
Proteins in the muscle must overlap and attach to each other in order to generate force.
16. At what percentage of maximum isometric forces does peak muscular power occur? One third.
17. Distinguish between concentric and eccentric muscle contractions and give an example of a movement or activity in which each type
of contraction is used.
Concentric: Contraction + shortening (lifting a barbell)
Eccentric: Contracting + lengthening (lowering a barbell)
18. Briefly explain why a muscle can produce the greatest amount of force when it is at resting length.
19. Define muscular torque. Torque = Force + Perpendicular Length
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