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Chapter 10

BPK 143 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Body Fat Percentage, Fad Diet, Blood Sugar

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

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- The ideal physique is different for each individual
- Losing weight is non-specific and is not a SMART goal
- Accurately measuring whether you have achieved goals is very difficult and expensive
Strength, muscle, fat, and body composition
- Develop strength by improving neuromuscular efficiency and increasing muscle size
- Many women mistakenly feel that strength training will cause them to bulk up and look
- Women, in general, do not bulk up
- Loss of muscle mass has occurred with the diet-only approach
- Health includes being able to function independently later in life
- Dieting and losing muscle mass is not a good strategy to keep you independent as you
- Resistance weight training combined with endurance training improves fat loss
- Adding resistance training in addition to diet and endurance training works on two levels,
and resistance training maintains or improves muscle mass due to overload
- If you lose body fat and gain muscle, you will trim down even if your weight remains
- Muscle is about 18% denser than fat
- There is an underlying pathology, individuals who eat correctly, exercise correctly, and
manage their stress levels appropriately will maintain a body composition that is healthy
for them
- For the vast majority of people who are over-fat, it is lack of regular exercise and poor
diet choices that are of concern
- Not because of a high volume of food but it is often poor choice of foods, and in
particular, large amounts of sugar, refined carbohydrates, and other high-glycemic foods
( foods that cause a rapid rise in blood glucose)
- Eating fat does not make you fat
- High-glycemic food cause a rapid rise in blood sugar and similar fast rise in blood insulin

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- Insulin is an essential hormone, but if levels are chronically elevated, the body will tend
to store more fat and cells may become desensitized to insulin, eventually leading to
type 2 diabetes
- Many individuals eat wisely and exercise regularly but remain over-fat because of their
genetic predisposition to have that type of body
- Performance measures are better indicators of health and fitness
Dietary Fat and Body Fat
- Nutrition research has been conducted very poorly because of bias
- Insulin: a hormone that regulates carbohydrates and fat metabolism. When you secrete
insulin it signals cells in the liver, muscle, and adipose (fat) tissue to take up sugar from
the blood. In the liver and muscle glucose is stored as glycogen and in adipose tissue it is
converted to fat
- Glycemic index (GI): a measure of the effects of foods on blood sugar levels.
Carbohydrates with a GI rating can be digested quickly causing a rapid rise in blood sugar
levels. Carbohydrates that break down more slowly, releasing glucose more gradually
into the bloodstream, have a low GI. Often this rapid rise in blood sugar results in a rise
in insulin levels
- Energy balance equation (EBE)
- Change in energy stores = energy intake energy expenditure
- Most weight loss programs have simply and wrongly treated energy intake and energy
expenditure as two independent variables
- Individuals who want to lose weight need to focus on decreasing caloric intake,
increasing energy expenditure, or a combination of the two
Energy intake
- The food we eat elicits hormonal responses, which determine how energy is stored in
the body- that is, in the form of body fat
- Energy intake is NOT independent of energy expenditure, and the type of calories you
eat does affect your energy output
- Energy intake and energy expenditure are DEPENDENT variables
- The storage and release of fat from adipose tissue (fat cells) is hormonally driven

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- The hormonal response to pregnancy stimulates fat accumulation in order to build
ample energy supplies for both mother and fetus
- The fat is usually stored in the buttocks, thighs, and breasts, and will be mobilized )
moved out of the cells) when energy is needed during pregnancy and lactation
- After giving birth, a mother will return to a normal amount of adipose tissue for her,
regardless of whether she eats more or fewer calories
- It is poor eating habits that cause a hormonal response, which then forces the body to
store excess calories as fat
- Poor food intake includes high-carbohydrate calories, particularly simple sugars and
refined flours, as well as total carbohydrate intake
- Restricting total carbohydrates, along with eating only carbohydrates that are low on the
GI, is the most effective diet for weight control and good health
- Hormones stimulate appetite and dictate how this “excess of nutrients is stored
- For children, the growth will include muscle, bone, and organ growth as well as some
adipose tissue
- For an adult, the hormonal response will cause growth in the form of fat accumulation
- Individuals on low-calories weight-loss diet tolerate high-fat, high-protein,
low-carbohydrate diets better than low-fat diets
- Despite low overall calorie intake, they do not report feeling hungry all the time, and
their metabolism does not slow down in an attempt to maintain fat stores
- All calories are not equal; the quality of those calories ( the type of nutrient and overall
nutrient balance) is very important
- Restricting calories intake but continuing to eat much of it in the form of high-glycemic
foods will make the body fight to maintain its fat stores and will lower the metabolism
- Your body secretes the hormone, insulin, in response to a rise in blood sugar.
- Insulin drives the body to store the excess blood sugar as fat. Remember I showed in
Chapter 6 that we do not store a lot of energy in the form of glycogen.
- Insulin inhibits your body’s ability to mobilize fat out of adipose tissue and burn it as a
fuel. Therefore, high insulin levels work against fat loss.
- Simple carbohydrates (e.g., high-fructose corn syrup, sugar, and white flour) increase
blood sugar levels the most, and increase insulin levels.
- Very high total-carbohydrate quantities in diets also increase insulin levels.
- Chronically elevated levels of insulin are responsible for metabolic syndrome, which
includes obesity, Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and more
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