BPK 143 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Coronary Artery Disease, Autonomic Nervous System, Overtraining
SchoolSimon Fraser University
DepartmentBiomedical Physio & Kines
Course CodeBPK 143
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IS PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS RELATED TO FITNESS?
- Exercise and nutrition cannot be separated
- Any challenge to our body’s resting state is a stressor
- Fight-or-flight reaction (FFR)
1) Releases hormones like adrenalin and cortisol.
2) Speeds the heart rate.
3) Slows digestion.
4) Shunts blood flow to major muscle groups.
5) Increases blood pressure.
6) Liberates nutrients for muscular action.
7) Enhances nervous control of skeletal muscles.
8) Dilates blood vessels to muscles.
9) Dilates pupils.
10) Increases focus (concentration).
11) Changes other functions not relevant to this level of study
- ^ these are sympathetic autonomic nervous system, and they are part of a processs that evolved to
help the muscular system obtain energy and strength in times of need
- The body responds to all stressors similarly, regardless of the exact nature of the stressor
- Excessive psychological stress can lead to mental exhaustion
- Stress is essential to life
- Distress: negative effects of stress
- Eustress: positive effect of stress
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- If there is no adequate time for recovery, the body will break down and become vulnerable
- Exercise is a debilitating process
HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS (HPA AXIS) DYSFUNCTION
- The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) encompasses a set of direct influences and
feedback interactions between the hypothalamus (a part of the brain), the pituitary gland (below the
hypothalamus), and the adrenal or suprarenal glands (located at the top of each kidney)
- Cushing’s disease involves a tumor in the pituitary gland
- The tumour increase levels of a hormone ACTH , which in turn increase the levels of cortisol that an
excess level of it can wreak havoc on our health
- Cortisol increases increasing the breakdown of muscle protein
- Cortisol is great as a fight-or-fright hormone
- Sustained high cortisol levels:
1) Destroy healthy muscle and bone.
2) Slow down healing and normal cell regeneration.
3) Co-opt biochemicals that are needed to make other vital hormones.
4) Impair digestion, metabolism, and mental function.
5) Interfere with healthy endocrine function.
6) Weaken your immune system
- Chronic stress might be the primary factor in the high rates of obesity and coronary heart disease seen
in Western societies
STRESS AND ITS EFFECT ON TESTOTERONE AND CORTISOL
- The performance of your endocrine system relies on a balance of exercise, nutrition, and rest
- Inadequate work-rest balance lowers testosterone levels via overtraining
- Reduced testosterone levels due to overtraining are highly correlated with increased levels of cortisol
- Testosterone and cortisol are negatively correlated
- Cortisol is a catabolic hormone, which puts the body in a catabolic state ( burning energy)
- Adrenalin and glucagon are all catabolic hormones
- Cortisol is important in glucose metabolism, blood pressure regulation, insulin release, immune
function, and the inflammatory ( healing) response
- It’s a good thing as long as the body doesn’t have too much of it
- Lack of sleep has been correlated with lower testosterone levels
- Quality and quantity of sleep matters
- Since most night-time testosterone is released during the late stages of the non-random eye movement
( REM) sleep cycle and the early part of the REM stage of sleep, any disruption is sleep is problematic
- We need adequate sleep to balance many hormones
- Insufficient or irregular sleep can lead to increased risk of colon cancer, breast cancer, heart disease,
- Sleep disruption affects crucial hormones and proteins that play roles in these disease
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