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BPK 143 (50)
Chapter 1

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

Chapter 1 Introduction to Fitness  Genotype o Genetic constitution of an individual  Phenotype (of an individual organism) o Describes one of its measurable traits or characteristic o Example  Blue eyes or aggressive behavior o Controlled by  Individual’s genes  Genes but also significantly affected by environmental factors  Environmental factors  Person’s language o Relationship (interaction between genotype and phenotype)  Genotype + Environment  Phenotype  Nature vs. Nurture o Nature  Individual’s innate qualities o Nurture  Experience  Per-Olof Astrand o Close to 100% of the biologic existence of humans was adapted to an outdoor existence of hunting and foraging for foods  Optimal Health o Exercise is not optional o Sedentary individuals have a much greater chance of a poor phenotype (chronic disease) than active individals o Sedentary  Accustomed to sit or rest a great deal  Take little exercise o Sedentary lifestyles and diets based largely on processed foods do not match human genetic make-up and have wrecked havoc on the health of the North American Population  Epigenetics o Study of heritable changes in phenotype (gene expression) caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence  Genes turned “off” or “on” by the environment humans encounter that can be passed onto future generations Physical Fitness  Definition o Physical fitness is the ability to carry out tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies  Fitness is specific to the activity you use to train o Not competent (fit) in all aspects of physical performance  Components o Cardiorespiratory (aerobic) endurance o Muscular strength o Muscular endurance o Flexibility o Body Composition Back Injuries and Motor Control  Common Types o Poorly conditioned muscles o Muscle imbalances in the trunk o Inflexibility in muscles crossing the shoulders and hips o Poor lifting technique o Poor motor control of the spinal musculature  A small motor control error can cause rotation of a single spinal joint, placing all bending support responsibility on the passive tissues (ligaments and disks)  Motor control (coordination) of the spinal musculature is essential to back health Fall Prevention and Balance Training  Strength and balance training can reduce falls by 40% Functional Movement  Performance and health are inseparable General Physical Skills  Good Body Composition o Normal expression of our genome o Result of fitness rather than a component of fitness o Train components of fitness, eat properly, and practice good stress management  Physical skills (fitness components) o Cardiovascular/respiratory endurance  Ability of body systems to gather, process and deliver oxygen o Stamina (muscular endurance)  The ability of the muscles to work over long periods against sub-maximal loads o Strength  The ability of a muscular unit or combination of muscular units to apply force (often slated as maximal force) o Flexibility  The Ability to optimize the range of motion at a given point o Power  The ability of a muscular unit or combination of muscular units to apply maximum force in minimum time (Force x Velocity, or rate of doing work) o Speed  Rate of change of position o Coordination  Ability to combine several distinct movement patterns into a singular distinct movement o Agility  The ability to minimize transition from one movement pattern to another o Balance  The ability to control the placement of the body’s center of gravity in relation to its support base o Accuracy  The ability to control movement in a given direction or at a given intensity  Developed through Developed through Developed through training training and practice practice  Endurance  Power  Coordination  Stamina  Speed  Agility  Strength  Balance
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