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Chapter 2

BPK 143 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Insomnia, Cardiac Output, Overtraining

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

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Chapter 2 : General Principles of Physiologic Conditioning
- Physiologic Conditioning : refers to a planned program of exercise directed towards
improving the functional capacity of a particular bodily system
- These principles are keys to keep in mind when developing exercise programs/plans :
1. Overload Principle
2. Specificity Principle
3. Reversibility Principle
4. Individual Differences Principles
Overload - Adapting to Amount of Training
- Essentially states that exercising a system (ex. muscular or cardiovascular) at a level
above which it normally operates, forces the system to adapt and function more
- Overload Principle is explained VIA Hans Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAD)
- essentially he explains that all our bodies responses to all stressors are non
specific, meaning they’re the same
- Hans Selye was the first to demonstrate the existence of biological stress
- He was able to develop a generalized pattern of organismic responses and
adaptations to a variety of stressors
- At the heart, the GAS Theory explains that stress (like exercise) disrupts the
- Initially this adaptation weakens the organism ( you feel tired and sore after a
training session) but the organism later responds by adapting and in fact
enhancing his/her capacity
Ex. Writing an exam in your first year versus your third year
- Below is a graphical representation of “Supercompensation”
- Supercompensation : basically becoming fitter by adapting to stress
- The shaded area indicates a training session (the stressor)
- This temporarily diminishes the athlete’s work capacity due to fatigue
- Over time the athlete’s body responds and compensates by becoming fitter
- This stress could be primarily on the cardiovascular system causing adaptation in the
delivery of oxygen to the muscle, or could be strength training causing muscle growth

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- For supercompensation (getting fitter by adapting to stress) to occur :
1. training must be difficult enough to disrupt the homeostasis
2. training must be followed by an adequate rest
- Important note is that after compensation, the fitness level will drop again. Therefore it is
important to train again
- Overload can be accomplished in three ways :
i. Increase the intensity of exercise while maintaining duration and frequency
ii. Increase the duration of exercise while maintaining intensity and frequency
iii. Increase the frequency of exercise while maintaining intensity and duration
- Important note is that if athletes maintain at the same frequency, intensity and duration
for a long period, they will not realize any further training effect (a plateau)
- The more fit you become, the more intense the exercise
- Important note, is that the overload principle applies to any of the 10 physical skills
- all of those “performance related components” can be improved through the
principle of overload
- Although coordination, agility, balance and accuracy can be improved, it is usually not
mainly due to the overload principle but instead through practice
- We can measure the structural changes to the muscle and heart due to exercise
- On the other hand we cannot measure structural changes to the central nervous
system that occurs when we improve coordination
- You can use the easily understood acronym FITTness formula to set up an effective
aerobic exercise program :
- F is for Frequency
- I is for intensity
- T is for Time
- T is for Type
Frequency of Exercise (FITTness Formula)
- 3 to 5 workouts per week, evenly spaced is an optimal frequency
- Every other day or three times a week is good for beginners
- allows your body 48 hours to recover through frequent rest days
Intensity of Exercise (FITTness Formula)

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- Training intensity is considered to the the most important factor in determining training
- Some people think that training volume is also a crucial issues
- There is a difference between health benefits (reducing blood pressure, blood fat levels)
and improved cardiovascular functions (ie. increased aerobic power)
- you can get some health benefits from going on short walks, but you will not
improve your aerobic capacity unless you are starting from an extremely low
aerobic capacity in the first place
- If you have a busy schedule, ideally you should train at a high intensity level
- However, you should try to maintain intensity during periods of lower frequency or
duration of exercise in a realistic manner
- You can estimate intensity by measuring your heart rate
- To ensure you get optimal cardiovascular training effect (overload), a person should
elevate his or her heart rate to a range of 70-90% of maximal heart rate and keep at this
level for a minimum of 15 minutes
- Common assessment methods to test your exercise intensity :
- Percentage of Maximal Heart Rate
- Heart Rate Reserve (Karvonen Formula)
- Rate of Perceived Exertion
- Talk-Test Method
1. Maximal Heart Rate Method : you can determine your age-predicted maximal heart rate
by using the formula “220 minus age” and then determining the percentage range of the
Ex. If I am a 22 year old female, based on the Maximal Heart Rate Method, what is my target
heart range if I were using 60 - 90% of my maximal heart rate ?
- Maximal Heart Rate = 220 - 22 (age) = 198 beats per minute BPM
- 60% of 198 (0.60 x 198) = 119 bpm
- 90% of 198 (0.90 x 198) = 178 bpm
- Target heart range = 119 - 178 bpm
- 10 second target heart rate = 20 - 30 beats
2. Heart Rate Reserve Method : Also known as the Karvonen Formula. This method is
considered more accurate. The Heart Rate Reserve Method is considered more
accurate as it can protect you from having too low a threshold target and takes into
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