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BPK 143 (50)
Chapter 3

KIN 143 Chapter 3 Notes

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

Required Muscle Names and Muscle Chapter 3 – Musculoskeletal Anatomy and Basic Resistance Training Actions To properly define a muscle action you must list both Anatomical Terms the joint being moved and the type of joint motion. - Anterior (or ventral) – front side of the body Sternocleidomastoid Caudal – in quadrupeds, the tail end (see inferior) Both sides working together produce flexion at - Cranial (or superior) – above or near the head the neck (cervical flexion). The right sternocleidomastoid produces rotation to the - Distal – farthest end from the trunk or head left and lateral flexion to the right. The left - Inferior – below also, toward the feet sternocleidomastoid produces rotation to the right and lateral flexion to the left. Infra – prefix meaning below or under - Lateral – away from the midline Deltoid (anterior, medial (or lateral), and posterior - Medial – toward the midline heads) - Posterior (or dorsal) – back side of the body, also Abduction of the arm (all sections). The anterior known as the dorsal fibres flex and horizontally adduct arm and the - Proximal – closest part nearest the trunk or head posterior fibres extend and horizontally abduct - Superior – above or near the head, also known as the arm. This muscle should not be treated as a single muscle due to the opposite action of the cranial anterior and posterior fibres. Supra – prefix meaning above or over Latissimus dorsi Extension and adduction at the shoulder joint. Pectoralis major (clavicular head and sternal head) Flexion, horizontal adduction and adduction at the shoulder joint. When the shoulder is flexed the pectoralis major will also act as an extensor. Note: When designing basic resistance training programs, there is no need to distinguish between the clavicular and sternal heads of this muscle. Biceps brachii Flexion at the elbow joint; also a weak flexor of the shoulder. Many students think the biceps is the primary and strongest elbow flexor. In fact, the biceps is the strongest elbow flexor when the forearm is supinated (palm toward the body). However, if the forearm is pronated (palm away from the body), the brachioradialis is the strongest forearm flexor. Brachialis common insertion. It is a deep-lying muscle with fibres running from the lumbar vertebrae and Flexion of the elbow. iliac bone to the front of the thigh (femur). As Brachioradialis the psoas attaches to the spine it is a very Flexion of the elbow. important muscle in relation to back pain and I will discuss this later in the text. Triceps Extension at the elbow joint. Gluteus Maximus Extension at the hip. Trapezius (lower, middle, and upper fibres) Quadriceps (rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, The trapezius is very important for many shoulder girdle movements but its action on the lateralis & medialis) scapula is quite complex and not emphasized in Extension at the knee (all four muscles). You this text. Some of the fibres also act on the should understand
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