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Chapter 5

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

CHAPTER 5 o Cardiovascular fitness can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease o Pulmonary circulation: deoxygenated blood is pumped from the heart through the lungs and oxygenated blood is returned back to the heart. o Systemic circulation: oxygenated blood is pumped from the heat around the rest of the boy + deoxygenated blood is returned to the heart o Blood Flow through the heart: o 1. blood from the head & blood from the trunk return to the heart via: superior vena cava & inferior vena cava o 2. It flows through: right atrium -> the tricuspid valve -> the right ventrical -> the pulmonary valve -> and the pulmonary arteries -> to the lungs o In the lungs the blood gives up exess carbon-dioxide (CO2) and replenishes oxygen (O2) o Then it flows through: -> pulmonary veins-> the left atrium -> the bicuspid valve -> the left ventricle -> the aortic valve -> aorta o From there, blood goes into systemic circulation, where it delivers oxygen (o2) to the tissues and removes carbon dioxed (CO2) from the tissues o Cardiac Output (Q): the amount of blood pumpedin one minute by either the right or left ventricle of the heart o Stroke Volume (SV): the amount of blood pumped by the left or right ventricle of the heart per beat. o Max SV at = 40% VO2 Max o Heart Rate (HR): the number of heart beats per minute o Cardiac output=heart rate x stroke volume o Skeletal muscle pump: rhythmic contraction relaxation of your muscles o A drawback of isometric contractions is that they primarily improve muscular strength only at the angle at which the joint is exercised. o Respiration: exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide b/wcells of an organism & the external environment o External Respiration: exchange of oxygen and CO2 in the alveoli (lungs) o Internal Respiration: exchange of O and CO2 at the cellular level o Air enters through the nose/mouth->through the pharynx->the larynce->and trachea o Then it flows through the 2 bronchi->the bronchioles->into the alveoli o Alveoli: thin-walled, hollow sacs where gas exchange takes place o Basic principle of breathing: Air molecules move from an area of higer pressure to an area of lower pressure. o Inspiration: the diaphragm muscle plus external intercostal muscles contract to increase the volume within thoracic cavity. This increases the volume within the lungs = decreased pressure, the air moves to the alveoli o Expiration: the diaphragm plus external intercostal (around the ribs, expand rib cage) muscles relax to decrease volume of thoracic cavity which increases alveoli air pressure forcing atmospheric pressure out. o Minute ventilation (Ve) volume of air inspired or expired in one minute o Tidal Volume (Vt) volume of air ventilated per breath o Respiratory frequency (Fr) Number of breaths per minute o Minute ventilation = Tidal volume x Respiratory frequency o Diffusion: random motion of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration o Ve=Vt x Fr o Hyperventilation: when minute ventilation begins to increase out of proportion to workload (increase more rapidly 75-80% of VO2max) o Blood: specialized cells (red blood cells, white blood cells & platelets) suspended in plasma o Erythrocytes: (red blood cells) deliver oxygen to cells + remove wa
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