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Chapter 9

BPK 205 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Basal Ganglia, Peripheral Nervous System, Posterior Column


Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 205
Professor
Parveen Bawa
Chapter
9

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38. Draw and label gross structure of the central nervous system. [10 minutes]
39. Draw and label the three separate sections of the spinal grey matter and spinal white
matter. What is contained in the grey matter and what lies in the white matter? Why
does the spinal cord look white? Name the neurons whose cell bodies lie in the dorsal
columns. [~ 1 page with a figure]
White matter consists of axons carrying messages either from spinal cord to higher
centres (ascending tracts) or from higher centres to the spinal cord (descending tracts).
No cell bodies in spinalwhite matter
Grey matter consists of cell bodies of neurons, synapses, and short axons
White matter is on the outside enclosing the spinal cord, so it looks white.
Neurons whose cell bodies lie in the dorsal columns are: neurons that receive action
potentials from the Peripheral Nervous System. They receive information from other
parts of the body (arms, legs, etc.)
40. Draw different sections of the brain stem? What are the functions of each section?
Where do basal ganglia lie? What leads to Parkinsonism? [1-2 pages with a figure]
Medulla:
Networks for automatic fxns: respiration, cardiovascular system, swallowing,
vomiting, etc.
Ascending and descending tracts (sends info up to cortex, thalamus or down to
spinal cord)
An important landmark called pyramids – a crossover region for the two
corticospinal tracts
Pons:
Some neurons for respiration
Relay station for pathways between cortex and cerebellum
Midbrain/Mesencephalon
Networks for eye movements and hearing
Basal Ganglia is in the white matter of the cerebral cortex on both sides of the thalamus.
Loss of dopaminergic neurons/dysfunction to basal ganglia leads to Parkinsonism
(difficulty carrying out movements). Dopamine and GABA are transmitters used by basal
ganglia. In Parkinsonism, cells containing Dopamine die.

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41. Draw the cerebral cortex with its four lobes. Also indicate the locations of the
primary motor cortex, primary somato-sensory cortex, primary visual cortex, primary
auditory cortex, olfactory cortex. What is the importance of the thalamus with respect to
the various sensory modalities in reaching the cerebral cortex? [< 1 page with a figure]
The thalamus receives information from the spinal cord, processes it and sends it to the
appropriate cortex. Ex. Visual information from the retina will be sent to the visual cortex
in the occipital lobe.
42. How thick is the grey matter of the cerebral cortex? Into how many layers has the
grey matter been divided. Where do the axons of cells in layers II, III and V project?
What is the function of layer IV? [<1 page with a figure]
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