Somatic output neurons: are called motoneurons, motoneurons located in ventral horn of the spinal cord, no cell bodies outside cns, target is skeletal muscle, always excitatory, posture and movement. Autonomic output neurons: target is heart, smooth muscle, or gland, cells which innervate the target cells lie outside the cns in a ganglion. Long post ganglionic axon: pre-ganglionic neurons lie in thoracic and lumbar regions of spinal cord, autonomic ganglion uses neurotransmitter: norepinephrine to bind to adrenergenic receptors of target tissue, post-ganglionic cells increase hr, vasoconstriction, sweating, inhibition of paristaltic movements. Short post ganglionic axon: pre-ganglionic neurons lie in sacral region of spine and brain stem, autonomic ganglion uses neurotransmitter: ach to bind to muscarinic receptors of target tissue. The ach activates g-protein which opens k+ channels which hyperpolarizes the membrane: slows hr, increases motility of gi tract. Diverts blood to internal organs: give examples of neurons whose cell bodies lie outside the cns.