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BPK 205 Chapter Notes -Pulmonary Stretch Receptors, Peripheral Chemoreceptors, Local Anesthetic

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 205
Parveen Bawa

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34. Compare and contrast the stimuli and rate of response of central and
peripheral chemoreceptors.
Central Chemoreceptors:
oStimuli: CO2 increase in Cerebrospinal fluid
oRate of response: within 1 min of stimulus
Peripheral Chemoreceptors:
oStimuli: PaCO2 increase, PaO2 decrease, pH decrease, increase all
detected in the carotid bodies, and aortic arch
oRate of response: within 2-3 breaths
35. Describe the Hering-Breuer inflation reflex.
Inspiration causes increased air flow, and blood flow into pulmonary
vessels. This stretches pulmonary stretch receptors, inducing the Hering-
Breuer reflex. The reflex causes inhibition of inspiration, so that the
expiration phase can be commenced. It also increases breathing
frequency by shortening expiration phase too.
36. Compare and contrast the O2 and CO2 effects on ventilation.
37. From an acid-base perspective, what 2 factors is pH dependent upon and
Ventilation rate (lungs, CO2 levels), and Metabolic factor (kidneys, HCO3-
CO2 + H2O  H2CO3  H+ + HCO3-
Increased CO2 shifts equation right to produce more H+ and lower pH
Increased HCO3- shifts it left to reduce H+ and raise pH
38. Describe in terms of speed and capacity only, the 3 systems that
compensate acid-base disturbances.
Chemical system:
oECF: Bicarbonate and Hb buffer, ICF: proteins, phosphates
oSpeed: fastest
oCapacity: most limited
Ventilation system:
oIncrease/decrease ventilation; VCO2rate
oSpeed: moderate
oCapacity: moderate
Kidney System:
oIncrease/decrease HCO2- excretion
oSpeed: slowest
oCapacity: greatest
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