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Chapter 4

BUS 237 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Year 2000 Problem, Flickr, Computer Network


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 237
Professor
Bisher
Chapter
4

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Where Did All This Information Technology Stuff Come From?
Early Computers: 1939-1952
- The early computers was large, complex, and expensive and only ran one program
at a time
Mainframes: 1952-Present
- Mainframe - the first digital computing machine used in business and
government
Microcomputers: 1975-Present
- Microcomputer - smaller than mainframes, the precursor to personal
computers
Networking Personal Computers: 1985-Present
- Ethernet was a set of rules, or protocols, enabling devices to communicate and share
information
Mobile and Tablet Computing: Late 1990s-Present
- The end of the twentieth century was an important period for two other technological
reasons
1. The high cost of early computer technology encouraged computer
programmers to save resources by using only the last two digits of the year.
a. The Y2K problem significantly raised the profile of computer
technology and, coupled with the rising popularity of World Wide Web,
ushered in a new age of technology change
2. The dramatic lowering of costs for cellular technology and mobile telephones
meant that these technologies became commonplace and adopted by large
groups of people across North America and Europe.
Cloud Computing: 2010-Present
- The rise of the internet and the use of websites such as Amazon and Flickr also
brought in a movement away from privately owned technology toward shared or
virtual storage and computing services called cloud computing
- Cloud computing promises flexible, secure, and scalable low fixed cost computing
that is available anywhere, anyone, and on any device
Summary
1. Price and performance advances: IT is continuously evolving
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2. Small is powerful: the history of computing can be summarized as an ongoing effort
to make IT smaller and more powerful, with the capability to be used almost
anywhere.
a. The three main components of a modern computer (the processor, the
memory, and the storage) have all been getting smaller and costing less, and
the current technology is both small enough and powerful enough to be useful
almost everywhere
3. The network is the thing: the value of IT can be measured not only in the power of
the processor but also in the power of the network that can be accessed through the
machine
What Does a Manager Need to Know About Computer Hardware?
- Hardware - electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process,
output, store, and communicate data according to instructions encoded in
computer programs or software
-
Input, Processing, Output, and Storage Hardware
- Input devices - hardware devices that attach to a computer
- I.e. keyboards, mouse, document scanners, and barcode (Universal Product
Code) scanners
- Processing devices - computing technology that allow for the modification,
storage, or deletion of data
- Central processing unit (CPU) - the CPU selects instructions, processes them,
performs arithmetic and logical comparisons, and stores results of operations
in memory
- Hertz - cycles of CPU speed
- CPUs can vary in terms of speed, function, and cost, and the type that you need will
often depend on the type of computing that you do
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- Main memory - a set of cells in which each cell holds a byte of data or
instruction
- Each cell has an address, and the CPU uses the addresses to identify
particular data items
- Random access memory (RAM) - memory that is external to the processing
until that is used for primary working memory in a computing system
- The CPI reads data and instructions from theRAM and then stores the results
of its computations in the main memory
- Output hardware - hardware that displays the results of the computer's
processing
- I.e. video displays, printers, audio speakers, overhead projectors, and other
special-purpose devices, such as large flatbed plotters
- Storage hardware - hardware that saves data and programs
- I.e. magnetic disks, optical disks (such as CDs and DVDs), and
semiconductor based storage (solid state drives (SSD))
- Special function devices - devices that can be added to the computer to
augment the computer’s basic capabilities
Computer Data
Binary Digits
- Binary digits - the means by which computers represent data
- A binary digit is either a zero or a one
- Bit - the means by which computers represent data
Sizing Computer Data
- All computer data are represented by bits regardless as to whether it is numbers,
characters, currency amounts, photos, recordings, or something else
- Bytes - a character of data. An 8-bit chunk
-
In Less Than 300 Words, How Does a Computer Work?
- To run a program or process data, the CPU must first transfer the program or data
from storage to main memory
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