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Chapter 4

BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Motivation, Job Satisfaction, M-Theory

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Lieketen Brummelhuis

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Bus 272 Chapter 4
Motivation — is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and
Intensity – how hard a person tries. This is the element most of us focus on when we
talk about motivation. However the effort has to have a direction that is beneficial
and that effort requires persistence.
Theory X — the assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it and
must be coerced, controlled or threaten with punishment to achieve goals
Theory Y — assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility and
will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objective
However, both those are not fully correct – motivation is the result for the interaction of
the individual and the situation. And levels of motivation vary among individuals and
within individuals at different times.
Intrinsic motivation — motivation comes from a person’s internal desire to do
something, due to interest, challenge and personal satisfaction. People are intrinsically
motivated when they care about their work and are energized by doing it well.
Theory Y supports intrinsic motivation
Extrinsic motivation — motivators come from outside the person – could be salary,
bonuses and other rewards
Theory X support extrinsic motivation
Need theories — describe the types of need that must be met to motivate individuals
1. Physiologcal Salary and Rewards
2. Safety Job security
3. Belonging Culture
4. Self-esteem Recognition
5. Self-actualization Results
As each need becomes substantially satisfies the next need becomes more dominant. (a
substantially satisfied need no longer motivates)
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Maslow suggest to be able to motivate someone you need to figure out what level of the
hierarchy they are currently in
Lower-order needs = physiological and safety needs – these are satisfied externally
(by rewards)
Higher-order needs = social (belonging), self-esteem and self-actualization – these
are satisfied internally
By Herzberg —proposed the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction – removing
dissatisfying factors of a job will not make that job satisfying
What leads to job satisfaction (motivators) are separate and different from those that lead
to job dissatisfaction (hygiene factors)
Two factor theory — theory that relates intrinsic factors (achievement, recognition and
the work itself) to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors (company policy,
administration, supervisor) with dissatisfaction.
Hygiene Factors — factors such as company policy, administration or supervisor
and salary – that when adequate in a job, placate employees(keeps them less angry
hostile). When these factors are adequate people will not be dissatisfied but will not
lead to satisfaction
Motivations factors — to motivate ppl you have to think of factors with the work
itself or with outcomes directly derived from it such as promotional opportunities,
personal growth, ect. = these are achievements people find intrinsically rewarding.
M theory of needs — Achievement, power and affiliation are 3 important needs that help
explain motivation
Theory focuses on 3 needs:
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1. Need for Achievement (nAch) — is the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a
set of standards and to strive to succeed
2. Need for Power (nPow) — is the need to make other behave in a way that they
would not have behaved otherwise
3. Need for Affiliation (nAff) — is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal
Good managers have high need for power and low for affliation
High need for achievement don’t make good leaders because they don’t care about
influencing others to do well only themselves
All propose a similar idea: individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in
Ex: if you have a need to be praised you will have motivation to work harder at
your task to receive that recognition
Process theories — help us understand the actual ways in which we and others can be
1. Expectancy Theory
2. Goal-setting Theory
3. Self-efficiency Theory
4. Reinforcement Theory
Expectancy Theory — theory that individuals act based on their evaluation of whether
their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by
a given outcome (rewards) and whether that outcome is attractive (will satisfy personal
This theory focuses on three relationships
1. Expectancy
2. Instrumentality
3. Valence
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