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Chapter 4

BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Goal Setting, Motivation, Theory X And Theory Y


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Professor
Lieketen Brummelhuis
Chapter
4

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Monday, January 23, 2017
Ch 4 - Theories of Motivation
What is Motivation
-Motivation: the intensity, direction, and persistence of effort a person shows in
reaching a goal
intensity - how hard a person tries
direction - guides intensity into something that is beneficial
persistence - how long a person can maintain effort
-Theory X: people are generally negative, and they must be controlled, coerced, or
threatened with punishment to achieve goals
-Theory Y: people are generally positive and self-motivated, they will seek direction
and self-control if they are committed to the objectives
-Extrinsic Motivators: external motivators, e.g. pay, bonuses, and other tangible
rewards - Theory X
-Intrinsic Motivators: come from a persons internal desire to accomplish something
e.g. interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction - Theory Y
Needs Theories of Motivation
-Needs Theories: the types of needs that must be met to motivate individuals
-Process Theories: help us understand the actual ways in which we and others can
be motivated
-Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory
within every human being, there are five basic human needs:
-Physiological - hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, other bodily needs
-Safety - includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm
-Social - affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship
- Esteem - internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and
achievement; external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention
!1
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Monday, January 23, 2017
-Self-Actualization - includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfilment
-ERG Theory: there are three groups of core needs -
existence - similar to physiological and safety needs
relatedness - similar to social needs
growth - similar to esteems needs snd self-actualization
-this theory does not exist in a hierarchy, all three can be satisfied or dissatisfied
simultaneously
-Motivation-Hygiene Theory:
Hygiene factors lead to dissatisfaction or no dissatisfaction
-quality or supervision, pay, company policies, physical working condition,
relationships with others, job security
Motivators are factors that lead to satisfaction or no satisfaction
-achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, growth
-Mcclelandp’s Theory of Needs: the theory focuses on three needs -
Need for Achievement: the drive to excell, to achieve in relation to a set of
standards
Need for Power: the need to make others behave in a way that they would not
have behaved otherwise
Need for Affiliation: the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
-Expectancy Theory: employees will be motivated to exert a high level of effort when
they believe the following:
that effort will lead to a good performance
that good performance will lead to organizational rewards - e.g. bonuses, salary
increase, or a promotion
that the rewards will satisfy employee’s personal goals
!2
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