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Chapter 2

BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Ingroups And Outgroups, Ethical Code, Extraversion And Introversion


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Professor
Graeme Coetzer
Chapter
2

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- Personality
- Values
- Self-concept
- Perceptions
- Emotions and
Attitudes
- Stress
Individual
Behavior
and Results
Motivation
Ability
Role
Perceptions
Situational
Factors
Chapter 2
Individual Behavior, Personality, and Values
MARS Model of Individual Behavior
Employee Motivation
- Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior
o Direction
The path along which people engage their effort
o Intensity
The amount of effort allocated to the goal
How much people push themselves to complete a task
o Persistence
Continuing the effort for a certain amount of time
Employees sustain their effort until they reach their goal or give up
beforehand
Employee Ability
- Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task
o Aptitudes: the natural talents that help employees learn specific tasks more
quickly and perform them better
o Learned capabilities: skills and knowledge you have acquired which tend to
wane over time when not in use
- Competencies: personal characteristics that lead to superior performance
- Person: job matching
o Selecting
o Developing
o Redesigning
Role Perceptions
- Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results
o Understanding what tasks to perform
o Understanding priority of tasks
o Understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks

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Situational Factors
- Environmental conditions beyond the individuals short-term control that constrain or
facilitate behavior
- Constraints: time, budget, facilities, etc.
- Cues (i.e. Signs of nearby hazards)
Types of Individual Behavior
- Task performance
o Goal-directed behaviors under persons control
o Transform raw materials into goods and services or support and maintain these
technical activities
- Organizational citizenship
o Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs)
Various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to others that support the
organizations social and psychological context
- Counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs)
o Voluntary behaviors that potentially harm the organization
- Joining and staying with the organization
o Agreeing to employment relationship
o Remaining in that relationship
- Maintaining work attendance
o Attending work at required times
o Presenteeism: attending scheduled work when ones capacity to perform is
significantly diminished by illness or other factors
Common with low job security
Personality
- Relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a
person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics
o External traits: observable behaviors
o Internal states: thoughts, values, etc. inferred from behaviors
o Some variability, adjust to suit the situation
- Influenced by two ways
o Nature
Heredity explains about 50 percent of behavioural tendencies and 30
percent of temperament
o Nurture
Socialization, life experiences, learning
Personality stabilizes throughout adolescence
Executive function steers behavior guided by our self-concept
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Conscientiousness
Careful
Dependable
Self-disciplined
Agreeableness
Courteour
Good-natured
Empathic
Caring
Neuroticism
Anxious
Insecure
Hostile
Self-conscious
Openness to
Experience
Sensitive
Flexible
Imaginative
Curious
Extroversion
Outgoing
Sociable
Assertive
Talkative
Five-Factor Personality Model (CANOE)
- Conscientiousness and emotional stability
o Motivational components of personality
o Strongest personality predictors of performance
- Extroversion
o Linked to sales performances
o Related to social interactive and persuasion
o Opposite is Introversion
- Neuroticism
o High level of anxiety, hostility, depression, and self-consciousness
o Low neuroticism (high emotional stability)
- Agreeableness
o Effective in jobs requiring cooperation and helpfulness
o Opposite is hostile noncompliance
- Openness to experience
o Linked to high creativity and adaptability to change
Jungian Personality Theory
- Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung identifies preferences for perceiving the environment and
obtaining/processing information
- Commonly measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
o Extroversion vs. Introversion
Similar to five-factor dimension
Getting energy
o Perceiving Information
Sensing: uses senses, factual, quantitative
Intuition: uses insight, subjective experience
o Judging (making decisions)
Thinking: rational logics, systematic data collection
Feeling: influenced by emotions, how choices affect others
o Orientation toward the external world
Perceiving: flexible, spontaneous, keeps options open
Judging: order and structure
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