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Chapter 2

BUS 272 Chapter 2: Individual Behaviour

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Sam Thiara

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CH2 Individual Behavior, Personality and Values
Learning Objects:
LO1 4 factors that directly influence individual behavior and performance
LO2 5 types of individual behavior in organization
LO3 describe personality and discuss how the “big Five” Personality dimensions and 4
MBTI types relate to individual behavior in organizations
LO4 Schwartz’s model of individual values and discuss the conditions where values
influence behavior
LO5 3 ethical principles and 3 factors that influence ethical behavior
LO6 5 values commonly studied across cultures/discuss the diverse cultures within
LO1 4 factors that directly influence individual behavior and performance (MARS model)
MARS Model of Individual Behavior and Performance
MARS -- Motivation/Ability/Role Perceptions/Situational factors
All four factors are critical influences on an individual’s voluntary behavior and
performance. 缺一不可 同等重要
M/A/R are clustered together in the model because they are located within the person.
S are external to the individual but still affect individual’s behavior and performance.

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The 4 MARS variables are the direct predictors of employee performance, customer
service, co-worker collegiality, ethical behavior, and all other forms of voluntary
behavior in the workplace.
Motivation represents the forces within a person that affect his or her direction,
intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior.(not actual behavior)
3 elements of direction
motivation intensity
Direction refers to the path along which people steer their effort. Motivation is goal-
Intensity is the amount of effort allocated to the goal. Intensity is all about how much
people push themselves to complete a task.
Persistence refers to the length of time that the individual continues to exert effort
toward an objective.
-MARS-A ∙ Ability
Ability includes both the natural aptitudes and the learned capabilities required to
successfully complete a task.
learned capabilities
Aptitudes are the that help employees learn specific tasks more quickly
and perform them better.
Learned capabilities are the physical and mental skills and knowledge you have
acquired. They tend to wane over time when not in use.
Challenge: matching a person’s abilities with the job’s requirements because a good
match tends to increase employee performance and well-being.

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3 strategies for matching job and employees:
1. Select applicants who already demonstrate the required competencies.
2. Train employees who lack specific knowledge or skills needed for the job.
3. Redesign the job so that employees are given tasks only within their current
-MARS-R ∙Role Perceptions
Role perceptions refer to how clearly people understand the job duties (roles) assigned
to or expected of them.
Range: from role clarity to role ambiguity
Duty 责任
3 forms: Priority 优先权
Preferred behavior/procedures 程序
Duty: employees have clear role perceptions when they understand the specific duties
or consequences for which they are accountable.
Priority: role clarity exists when employees understand the priority of their various tasks
and performance expectations.
Preferred behavior/procedures: understanding the preferred behaviors or procedures
for accomplishing tasks.
Why role perception is important?
1. They represent how well employees know where to direct their effort.
Employees with role clarity perform work more accurately and efficiently
whereas those with role ambiguity waste considerable time and energy by
performing the wrong tasks or the right tasks in the wrong way.
2. Role clarity is essential for coordination with co-workers and other stakeholders.
3. Role clarity motivates employees because they have a higher belief that their
effort will produce the expected outcomes.
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