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Chapter 5

BUS 272 Chapter 5: 272 CH5

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Sam Thiara

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LO1 Employee Engagement
As an individuals emotional and cognitive motivation, particularly a focused,
intense, persistent, and purposive effort toward work-related goals.
1. An emotional involvement in, commitment to, and satisfaction with the work.
A desire to perform beyond narrowly defined job duties.
2. Includes a high level of absorption in the work—the experience of focusing
intensely on the task with limited awareness of events beyond it.
3. Often describes in terms of self-efficacy—the belief that you have the ability,
role clarity, and resources to get the job done.
Of evidence that it predicts employee and work unit performance.
Emotions are engine of motivation.
What are the drivers of employee engagement?
Goal setting, employee involvement, organizational justice, organizational
comprehension, employee development opportunities, sufficient resources, and
an appealing company vision are some of the more commonly mentioned
Is not a personal trait that some people have and others don’t
Is the result of the interaction between the individual and the situation.
Is the level, direction and persistence of effort.
LO2 Employee drives and needs
Drives: primary needs, hardwired characteristics of the brain that attempt to
keep us in balance by correcting deficiencies. Innate motives.
Drives produce emotions that energize us to act on our environment.
Universal and innate, everyone has them and they exist from birth.
Starting point of motivation because they generate emotions, which put
people in a state of readiness to act on their environment.
Neural states that energize individuals to correct deficiencies or maintain an
internal equilibrium.
Prime movers of behavior by activating emotions.

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Drives, and the emotions produced by these droves, generate human needs.
Needs: goal-directed forces that people experience.
The motional factors of emotional channeled toward specific goals to correct
deficiencies of imbalances. Drive-generated emotions directed toward goals.
Goals formed by self-concept, social norms, and experience.
The emotions we become aware of.
Individual Differences In Needs
Individual differences—including self-concept, social norms, and past experience
influence motivation process in a second way.
LO3 Needs and Drives Theories
Maslows needs hierarchy theory
Hierarchy (From lowest to highest): physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem,
and self-actualization.
Principles: deficit and progression.
Strongest source of motivation is the lowest unsatisfied need.
Different people have different needs hierarchies.
Personal needs are strongly influences by self-concept, personal values, and
personality. People have different hierarchies of values, so they also have parallel
differences in their needs hierarchies. Peoples values hierarchy can change over
time, so the needs hierarchy also change over time.
People who experience self-actualization desire more rather than less of this
need: growth need.
Needs hierarchy theory has failed the reality test, how we think about human
motivation in three ways
1. Needs should be studied together because human behavior is typically by
more than one need at same time. Previously, motivation experts had
studied separately each of the dozens of needs and their underlying drives.
2. Motivation can be shaped by human thoughts, whereas earlier motivation
experts focused mainly on how instincts motivate behavior.
3. Maslow popularized the concept of self-actualization, suggesting that people
are naturally motivated to reach their potential.

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Evaluating Maslows Theory:
Lack of support for theory
People have different hierarchies—don’t progress through needs in the
same order.
Order can change as one might encounter difficulties
Needs change more rapidly than Maslow stated.
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation: motivation controlled by people seek need fulfillment from
doing the activity itself.
People experience self-actualization by applying their skills and knowledge,
observing how their talents achieve meaningful results, and experiencing
personal growth through learning.
When people seek need fulfillment from doing the activity itself, not as a
means to some other outcome. They enjoy applying their talents toward a
meaningful task and experiencing progress or success in that task.
Behavior is intrinsically motivated when it is anchored in our innate drives for
competence and autonomy. People feel autonomous when applying their skills
and observing positive, meaningful outcomes from those skills. People feel
autonomous when their motivation is self-initiated rather than controlled from
an external source.
Extrinsic motivation: when people are motivated for instrumental reasons to
receive something that is beyond their personal control.
They direct their effort toward a reward by others that indirectly fulfils a
Exist throughout organizations, and include performance bonuses,
recognition awards, and frequent reminders from the boss about work
deadlines. Outcomes are controlled by others and not need fulfillments in
Does extrinsic motivation undermine intrinsic motivation?
The additive view suggests that someone performing an intrinsically
motivating job becomes even more motivated by also receiving an extrinsic
source of motivation for that work.
The extrinsic motivator energizes the employee more than the intrinsic
motivator alone.
The contrasting hypothesis is that introducing extrinsic motivators
diminishes the employee’s feeling of autonomy, which is a key source of
intrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic motivators may reduce existing intrinsic motivation to some extent
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