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Chapter 2

BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Counterproductive Work Behavior, Absenteeism

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Sam Ajit Thiara

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BUS 272 CH. 2 Individual Behavior, Personality & Values
SNCL participated in various unethical practices in order to secure a contract. Executives were
motivated by bonuses & the CEO turned a blind eye to the unethical practices
MARS Model of Individual Behavior & Performance
MARS model: Motivation, Ability, role perception, situational factors are direct predictors of
employee behavior b/c they greatly influence one’s voluntary behavior & performance
- If one of the 4 factors is lacking, the employee doesn’t perform as well
! Employee Motivation
- Motivation: cognitive thoughts (emotions), the force in a person that affects their
direction, intensity, & persistence of voluntary behavior
o Direction: where a person wants to go, it’s not random
o Intensity: how much effort is put to get to the destination/goal
o Persistence: how long a person sticks to it
- Like driving a car
o There’s a steering wheel that gives you control of where you want to go
(direction), there’s an accelerator how hard to you press is to get to where you
want to go (intensity), & how long do press it for, to get to your goal (persistence)
! Ability
- Aptitudes & learned capabilities are needed to complete a task
o Aptitudes: natural talents help a person learn something faster & do them better
o Learned capabilities: knowledge that you have right now that you’ve learned
- Important to fit an employee well to their job according to their aptitudes & learned
capabilities so they can perform well
! Role Perceptions
- How clearly employee understand their roles & what is expected from them
- Many employees don’t have role clarity which exists in 3 forms
1) understanding specific duties/consequences they’re accountable for
2) understanding priority of their tasks ex. Quality vs. quantity, allocation of time
3) understanding preferred behaviors to complete tasks
- with role clarity, employees are more motivated & confident in a task
! Situational Factors
- conditions outside the employee’s control that affect how well they can perform
Types of Individual Behavior
5 categories of individual behavior
! Task Performance
- goal directed behavior under the control of the individual that supports objectives
- proficiency (how well one performs) is not enough, has to be adaptable & proactive as
! Organizational Citizenship (OCB’s organizational citizenship behavior)
- activities that go beyond what is asked of an employee
- includes helping co-workers, sharing, in general just being beyond nice to your co-
! Counterproductive work behavior (CWB’s)
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