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Chapter 4 - Theories of Motivation
What is Motivation?
Motivation - the intensity, direction, and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal
● intensity refers to how hard the person tries, direction is whether the person is putting
the intensity towards the right goals or not and persistence is how long a person can
maintain the effort
● Level of motivation varies among people and situations
● What motivate people will also vary among individuals
McGregor’s View of Human Beings
●Theory X - the assumptions that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and
must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals
●Theory Y - the assumptions that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility,
and will exercise direction and self - control if they are committed to the objectives
●Intrinsic motivators - a person’s internal desire to do something: interest, challenge,
and personal satisfaction
- people who genuinely care about their work, look better ways to do it and are energized
and fulfilled by doing it well
●Extrinsic motivators - come from outside the person and include such things as pay,
bonuses and other tangible rewards
What is the Need Theories?
Need Theories - types of needs when they are not met will motivate an individual
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization - in
which as each need is substantially satisfied the next need becomes dominant
● for an employer who is trying to motivate the employee, he or she has to know which
level the employees are on.
Herzberg’s hygiene factors (two factor theory) - a theory that links intrinsic factors to job
satisfaction and extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction
●Hygiene factors - company policy and administration, supervision, salary
● Herzberg suggests that if we want to motivate people, not only do we need to adjust the
hygiene factors but also the emphasize on the intrinsic factors (achievement,
recognition, work itself, advancement, and growth)
McClelland’s theory of needs - achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs
that help explain motivation
● Need for achievement - is the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of stands, and
to strive to succeed
● Need for power - is the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have
● Need for affiliation - is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationship
What is process theory?