BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Goal Setting, Job Satisfaction, Theory X And Theory Y

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Chapter 4 - Theories of Motivation
What is Motivation?
Motivation - the intensity, direction, and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal
intensity refers to how hard the person tries, direction is whether the person is putting
the intensity towards the right goals or not and persistence is how long a person can
maintain the effort
Level of motivation varies among people and situations
What motivate people will also vary among individuals
McGregors View of Human Beings
Theory X - the assumptions that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and
must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals
Theory Y - the assumptions that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility,
and will exercise direction and self - control if they are committed to the objectives
Intrinsic motivators - a person’s internal desire to do something: interest, challenge,
and personal satisfaction
- people who genuinely care about their work, look better ways to do it and are energized
and fulfilled by doing it well
Extrinsic motivators - come from outside the person and include such things as pay,
bonuses and other tangible rewards
What is the Need Theories?
Need Theories - types of needs when they are not met will motivate an individual
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs - physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization - in
which as each need is substantially satisfied the next need becomes dominant
for an employer who is trying to motivate the employee, he or she has to know which
level the employees are on.
Herzberg’s hygiene factors (two factor theory) - a theory that links intrinsic factors to job
satisfaction and extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction
Hygiene factors - company policy and administration, supervision, salary
Herzberg suggests that if we want to motivate people, not only do we need to adjust the
hygiene factors but also the emphasize on the intrinsic factors (achievement,
recognition, work itself, advancement, and growth)
McClelland’s theory of needs - achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs
that help explain motivation
Need for achievement - is the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of stands, and
to strive to succeed
Need for power - is the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have
behaved otherwise
Need for affiliation - is the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationship
What is process theory?
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