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Chapter 8

BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Punctuated Equilibrium, Job Satisfaction, Brainstorming

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Sam Ajit Thiara

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BUS 272 – CH. 8 Team Dynamics
We study team dynamics to understand why it’s important & how an organization can
strengthen organizational effectiveness potential
Teams & Informal Groups
Teams: exist to fulfill a purpose, teams held together b/c of interdependence to complete a goal,
team members influence each other, team exists when members perceive themselves a team
- 3 distinguishing characteristics:
opermanence: how long a team exists
oskill differentiation: how diverse is the skillset of the team
oauthority differentiation: distribution of authority in a team
Informal Groups
- vs. teams, informal groups have no interdependence on one another
- why do informal groups exist?
oDrive to bond, hard-wired to belong to informal groups
oTo shape & reinforce our self-concept (social identity theory)
oCan accomplish goals that otherwise would have been impossible alone
oWe’re comforted when we’re around people, provide emotional social support
- Not created to complete a goal, just happens b/c able to reduce stress. & are the
backbone to social networks
Advantages & Disadvantages of Teams
- More knowledge & expertise exposure in a group better products/services, engaged
- More motivated (b/c of the drive to bond, accountable to team, we compare ourselves)
The Challenges of Teams
- Teams have additional cost: process losses: time, energy, money it costs to maintain
relationship, understanding, collaborating w/ team members (coordinating issues)
-Brook’s law: adding more people can hinder team performance b/c more energy spent
co-ordinating b/w each other
-Social loafing: motivational process loss, member performs at a lower level in a group
- ways to social loafing: make task more interesting objective is important, members
value team membership
A Model of Team Effectiveness (why do some teams fail while others are effective?)
An effective team:
1) benefits organization-serves an organizational purpose
2) members are satisfied & happy
3) ability to survive long enough to fulfill its purpose
organizational & team environment
- all conditions outside the team’s control that influences its effectiveness, resources that
can inhibit/support team’s ability to achieve its goals
- team members more effective when:
oreceive rewards,
osupports team-oriented work,
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oteams based around a cluster of work,
oinformation systems supports team coordination
ophysical layout for more interaction
- environment drives change. Ex. External competition, societal expectations
Team Design Elements
It’s not enough that the team is team-friendly if the following are designed poorly
Task characteristics
- teams work better when a task is well-structured vs. ambiguous ones
- but if team members have enough role clarity, they can work in ambiguous situations
- level of how much employees share materials, information, expertise to perform their job
=task interdependence is also important. 3 levels (low-high)
opooled interdependence: each member works alone, but shares raw material
osequential interdependence: output of a person is input of another-assembly line
oreciprocal interdependence: output exchanged back & forth b/w members
- higher the task interdependence & having same task goals, should organize people into
Team Composition
- most common effective team member characteristics: “Five C’s”: (high
conscientiousness & extroversion)
ocooperating: willing/able to work together rather than alone
ocoordinating: members manage work so it’s performed efficiently
ocommunicating: information communicated freely, efficiently, respectfully& listens
ocomforting: help coworkers maintain + state
oconflict resolving: have skills & motivation to resolve disagreement
-Team Diversity:
oAdvantages: make better decisions (see problems in a different angle) & broader
pool of technical competencies. better representation b/c diverse
oDisadvantages: takes longer to become higher performing team (bond slowly) &
susceptible to “fault lines” division w/in the group
oAdv of homogenous teams: better for tasks that need cooperation & coordination
-Team roles: role: behavior you’re expected to perform b/c you have a specific position
oCan be informal (suits personality)/formal
-Transactive memory: who has task-relevant knowledge & does the group know about it?
They should otherwise, their skills will go to waste. Spend time to understand them too
Team States
Motivational/cognitive characteristics of the team that continuously change
Team Norms
-Norms: informal rules & shared expectations to regulate behavior of the group b/c
people want to be able to anticipate how other will react
-How do they develop? Norms form when members learn about behaviors helpful to the
team & are influenced by the experiences & values of the members
- Preventing & changing dysfunctional team Norms:
oClearly establish desirable team norms in the beginning, choose people who
have appropriate values
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