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Chapter 5-6

BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5-6: Abraham Maslow, Employee Engagement, Expectancy Theory

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Graeme Coetzer

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Chapter 5 Foundations of employee Motivation
Motivation the forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity and persistence of
voluntary behaviour
o One of the 4 essential drivers of individual behaviour and performance
o Closely related to employee engagement
Employee engagement the employee’s emotional and cognitive motivation, self-efficacy to
perform the job, a clear understanding of their role in the org’s vision, and a belief that they
have the resources to perform their job
o Relates to 4 cornerstones of MARS model (motivation, ability, role perceptions,
situational factors) about one’s beliefs and emotional responses to these conditions
that create high performance
Drives, Needs and Employee Motivation
Drives (aka. primary needs, fundamental needs, innate motives) neural states that energize
individuals to correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium
o ‘prime mover’ of behaviour by activating emotions, which put us in a state of readiness
to act emotions play a central role in motivation
Needs goal-directed forces that people experience; represent motivational force of emotions
channeled towards particular goals to correct deficiencies or imbalances
Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory
o developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940s
o A motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby ppl are motivated to
fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified integrates long list of
previously-studied needs into a 5-level hierarchy
o 4 bottom sets of needs known as “deficiency needs” while self-actualization is known as
a “growth need”
o Desire to know and desire for aesthetic beauty are considered 2 innate drives and don’t
fit in the hierarchy

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o We are motivated simultaneously by several needs, but the strongest source is the
lowest unsatisfied need at the time
o Limitations and contributions empirical evidence doesn’t support Maslow’s theory
ppl don’t progress through the hierarchy as Maslow predicted; however, brings a more
holistic, humanistic, positive approach to the study of human motivation
Laid the foundation for Positive organizational behaviour a perspective of OB
that focuses on building positive qualities and traits w/in individuals or
institutions as opposed to focusing on what is wrong with them
What’s wrong with needs hierarchy models?
o ERG theory a needs hierarchy theory consisting of 3 fundamental needs: existence,
relatedness, growth
How ppl regress down the hierarchy when they fail to fulfill higher needs
Explains motivation better than Maslow, but it’s easier to cluster needs around
3 categories than 5
o Most ppl don’t fit into a single needs hierarchy; they are unique to each person, not
Learned Needs theory
o Developed by psychologist David McClelland recognized that a person’s needs can be
strengthened through reinforcement, learning, and social conditions
o Need for Achievement (nAch) if strong, want to accomplish challenging tasks through
own effort, prefer working alone, choose moderately risky tasks, desire unambiguous
feedback/recognition for success, money is weak motivator
o Need for Affiliation (nAff) desire to seek approval from others, conform to their
wishes/expectations, avoid conflict/confrontation; if strong, project favourable image of
themselves, actively support others and smooth out workplace conflicts
o Need for power (nPow) if high, want to exercise control over others and are
concerned about maintain leadership position, rely on persuasive communication, make
more suggestions, publicly evaluate situations more frequently; two kinds
personalized power (enjoy power for its own sake, use it to advance personal interests,
wear power as status symbol), social power (desire power as a means to help others);
social power > personalized power effective leaders
o Learning needs needs can be learned (strengthened/weakened) achievement progs
where trainees write achievement-oriented stories and practice achievement-oriented
behaviours in games; attempt to alter individual’s self-concept or experiences such that
they amplify/suppress related drive-generated emotions
Four-drive theory a motivation theory based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn and
defend that incorporates both emotions and rationality
o Drive to acquire seek, take, control and retain objects and personal experiences
(beyond food and water, includes enhancing one’s self-concept through relative status
and recognition in society); basis of competition and need for esteem insatiable since
humans are motivated to achieve higher positions than others
o Drive to bond forming social relationships and develop mutual caring commitments w/
others; explains why ppl form social identities by aligning self-concept w/ various social
groups; motivates ppl to cooperate and is a fundamental ingredient to success of orgs
and dev of societies
o Drive to learn drive to satisfy our curiosity, know and understand ourselves and the
enviro around us; when observing smt inconsistent w/ or beyond current knowledge,

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tension is created that motivates us to close info gap; related to higher order needs of
growth and self-actualization
o Derive defend drive to protect ourselves physically and socially; “fight-or-flight”
response in face of physical danger, but extends to defending
relationships/acquisitions/belief systems
o All innate and universal hardwired into all humans; all independent of each other, no
hierarchy among them, a complete set; proactive (we regularly try to fulfill them) except
defend which is reactive
o How drives influence employee motivation
Info we receive is quickly/nonconsciously tagged w/ emotional markers that
subsequently shape our logical analysis of the situation 4 drives determine
which emotions are tagged to incoming stimuli
Emotions generated by 4 drives motivate us to act, and our mental skill set
chooses courses of action that are acceptable to society and our own moral
o Evaluating 4-drive theory
Theory based on research conducted for over 3 decades (drives ID’ed in
psych/anthro studies, translation of drives to behaviour based on research into
emotion and nueral processes)
Avoids assumption that everyone’s needs hierarchy is the same; is holistic and
humanistic, and provides clearer understanding about role of EI in motivation
and behaviour
o Practical implications of 4-drive theory
Ensure that individual jobs and workplaces provide a balanced opportunity to
fulfill the 4 drives best workplaces for employee motivation and well-being
offer conditions that help employees fulfill all 4 drives; fulfillment of 4 drives
must be kept in “balance” (i.e. orgs should avoid too much or too little
opportunity to fulfill each drive)
Expectancy Theory of motivation a motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is
directed towards behaviours that ppl believe will lead to desired outcomes, i.e. we are
motivated to achieve the goals w/ the highest expected payoff
o Individual’s effort lvl depends on 3 factors:
Effort-to-performance (e-to-p) expectancy individual’s perception that their
effort will result in a particular lvl of performance; usually falls somewhere in
between unquestionable accomplishment and nil probability of desired
performance lvl
Performance-to-outcome (e-to-o) expectancy perceived probability that a
specific behaviour or performance lvl will lead to particular outcomes; usually
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