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Chapter 2

BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Big Five Personality Traits, Fundamental Attribution Error, Estj

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Christopher Zatzick

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Chp 2: Perception, Personality, and Emotions
Q: Why should we care?
A: People's behaviour is based on their perception of reality, not reality itself.
Perception - The process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to
give meaning to their environment
Factors Influencing Perception
1. Perceiver
o Influence of personal characteristics (attitudes, personality, motives, experience,
expectations )
2. Target
o Target's characteristics (novelty, motion, sounds, size, background, proximity)
3. Situation
o Context of the event (time, work setting, social setting)
Perceptual Errors
1. Attribution Theory - The theory that when we observe what seems like atypical behaviour by an
individual, we attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused
When we observe atypical behaviour, we attribute it to either the individual's personality or the
surrounding environment
Three rules about behaviour:
Distinctiveness - A behavioural rule that considers whether an individual acts similarly
across a variety of situations
unusual = external attribution, usual = internal attribution
Consensus - A behavioural rule that considers if everyone faced with a similar situation
responds in the same way
high consensus = external attribution, low consensus = internal attribution
3. Consistency - A behavioural rule that considers whether the individual has been acting in the
same way over time
low frequency = external attribution, high frequency = internal attribution
Ways that attributions get distorted:
o Fundamental Attribution Error - The tendency to underestimate the influence of external
factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgements about
the behaviour of others
o Self-serving Bias - The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal
factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors

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Selective Perception - People's selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests,
background, experience, and attitudes
A characteristic that stands out is more probable to be perceived
Allows us to speed-read others but at the risk of inaccuracy
"we see what we want to see"
Halo Effect - Drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
Contrast Effects - The concept that our reaction to one person is often influenced by other people
we have recently encountered
Projection - Attributing one's own characteristics to other people
Causes people to see others as more homogeneous than different
Stereotyping - Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person
Are widespread and over-generalized to the point that it may lack any truth
Prejudice begins with stereotypes with negative emotions attached
Heuristics - Judgement shortcuts in decision making
Prejudice - An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a
particular stereotyped group
Self-fulfilling Prophecy - A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with how
he or she is perceived by others
Q: Why do we care?
A: A look at one's personality is extremely important in predicting one's success in the specified
Personality is made up of both hereditary and environmental factors, moderated by situational
Personality Traits
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
1. Extraverted/introverted - dealing with people and things
o Extraverted - outgoing, sociable, assertive
o Introverted - quiet, shy
2. Sensing/intuitive - processing information
o Sensing - practical, orderly, detailed
o Intuitive - unconscious process, big picture
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