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Chapter 4

BUS 272 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Clayton Alderfer, Victor Vroom, Abraham Maslow


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Professor
Christopher Zatzick
Chapter
4

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Chp 4: Theories of Motivation
What is Motivation?
Motivation - The intensity, direction, and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal
i. Intensity - how hard a person tries
ii. Direction - channelling towards a beneficial manner
iii. Persistence - how long a person can maintain his or her effort
Douglas McGregor proposed two views of human beings:
1. Theory X - The assumption that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be
coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals
2. Theory Y - The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and will
exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives
Level of motivation varies both among individuals and within individuals at different times
Intrinsic Motivators - A person's internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest,
challenge and personal satisfaction
Extrinsic Motivators - Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as
pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards
Needs Theories of Motivation
Needs theories describe the types of needs that must be met to motivate individuals
o They represent a foundation from which contemporary theories have grown
o Practising managers still regularly use these theories and their terminology in explaining
employee motivation
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory - Abraham Maslow

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Hierarchy of Needs Theory - A hierarchy of five needs (physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-
actualization) in which, as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant
Although needs are never fully met, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates, so you need
to progress to a higher level to motivate someone
High-order needs are satisfied internally, low-order needs are satisfied externally
Receives wide recognition due to intuitive logic and ease of understanding
However:
Research does not validate the theory
o No empirical evidence and little support from studies show organized structures as described
by Maslow
ERG Theory - Clayton Alderfer
ERG Theory - A theory that posits three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth
o Existence - similar to physiological and safety needs
o Relatedness - similar to social and status needs
o Growth - similar to esteem needs and self-actualization
Did not assume rigid hierarchy - individual could be focusing on all three categories simultaneously
However:
Empirical research has not been supportive of theory either
Motivation-Hygiene Theory - Frederick Herzberg
Motivation-Hygiene Theory - A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates
extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction
Job satisfaction seemed to be related to intrinsic factors (achievement, recognition, work itself,
advancement, growth)
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Job dissatisfaction seemed to be related to extrinsic factors (company policy, supervision,
interpersonal relations, work conditions)
Proposed dual continuum: Satisfaction and No Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and No Dissatisfaction
o Hygiene factors can make people not dissatisfied, but not make them satisfied
However:
The procedure used is limited by methodology - people credit themselves for positive things, and
blame failure on external environment
The reliability is questionable - raters interpreted, so one response may be interpreted differently
than similar responses
Not really a theory of motivation
No overall measure of satisfaction was used
Is inconsistent with previous research
McClelland's Theory of Needs - David McClelland
McClelland's Theory of Needs - Achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that
help explain motivation
o Achievement - The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to standards, to strive to succeed
o Power - The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved
otherwise
o Affiliation - The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
nAch: high achievers want to do things better, hold personally responsible for performance, enjoy
succeeding on difficult tasks and dislike succeeding due to chance
nPow: desire to have impact, to be influential, to control others, preference of competitive and
status-oriented situations, concern with prestige
nAff: strive for friendship, prefer cooperative situations, desire relationships that involve a high
degree of mutual understanding
Summarizing Need Theories
All propose similar idea: Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation
o They differ in types of needs considered and whether it is a hierarchy or a list of needs
Process Theories of Motivation
Process theories help us understand the actual ways in which we and others can be motivated
Expectancy Theory - Victor Vroom
Expectancy Theory - The theory that individuals act depending upon their evaluation of whether
their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given
outcome, and whether that outcome is attractive to them
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