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Chapter 3

Textbook Ch3 Review notes


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 381
Professor
Melissa Mc Crae
Chapter
3

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Chapter 3: Designing and Analyzing Jobs
The relationships between people and tasks must be structured in a way that leads the
organization to achieve its goals in an effective manner.
Organizational structure refers to the formal relationships among jobs in an organization. A chart
shows the chain of command and shows who is accountable to whom, but does not show
communication pattern, degrees of supervision, actual supervision, amount of power & authority,
or specific duties/ responsibilities.
Designing an organization involves choosing a structure that is appropriate given the companys
goals. There are three types of organizational structure: bureaucratic, flat, and Matrix .
Bureaucratic Top down management approach
Many levels of hierarchical communication and career path
Highly specialized jobs, with narrowly defined job description
Focus on independent performance
FlatDecentralized management approach
Few levels and multi-directional communication
Broadly defined job descriptions
Emphasis on teams and customer service
MatrixAllow forming group by different functional small groups to work on a project.
Occur more in flat structure
Job Design: The process of systematically organizing work into tasks that are required to
perform a specific job.
Job: a group of related activities and duties. The duties should be clear, and distinct from other
jobs. This helps to minimize conflict and enhance employee performance. The collection of tasks
and responsibilities by one person is known as a position.
Job simplification: evolved from scientific management theory. Work was broken down into
clearly defined repetitive tasks to maximize efficiency. This leads to lower employee satisfaction,
repetitive strain injuries, and high turnover.
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Job Enlargement: horizontal loading. A technique to relieve boredom that involves assigning
workers additional task at the same level of responsibility in order to increase the number of tasks
they have to perform. This draws on a wider range of employee skills.
Job Rotation: Systematically moving employees from one job to another to reduce boredom. .
This leads to more task variety, motivation, and productivity. Company gains by having more
versatile employees who can cover for one another.
Jon Enrichment: vertical loading. Adding more meaningful tasks and duties. Increases
independence and responsibility by allowing employees to assume a greater role in the decision
making process. Activities include:
Increasing difficulty and responsibility
More authority
Provide feedback directly to employees
Opportunity for growth
Allowing employees to complete the job in its entirety rather than just parts of it.
Employee satisfaction is directly linked to five core characteristics:
Skill variety; do different tasks using their different talents, skills and abilities
Task identity; seeing a visible result from their work, so completing a whole piece of
work
Task significance; degree of impact that the job has on the lives of others, inside and
outside the organization.
Autonomy; amount of freedom, independence and discretion the employee has in terms of
scheduling work and determining procedures
Feedback; degree to which the job provides the employee with clear and direct
information about job outcomes and performance.
These characteristics allow workers to experience three psychological states:
Meaningfulness; the extent to which the employee experienced the work as important and
worthwhile
Responsibility; how much the employee feels personally responsible and accountable for
the outcome of the work
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Knowledge of results; how much information does the worker have about their own
performance
Outcome: high internal work motivation, high-quality work performance, high satisfaction with
work , low turnover and absenteeism.
A job that allows a worker to experience all 3 states provides internal rewards that sustain
motivation. But this all depends upon the workers need for challenge!
Team-Based Job Designs: focus is on giving a team a job to do and letting them decide amongst
themselves who will do what. This is best suited to flat or boundaryless organizations.
Jo b Analysis - Cornerstone of HRM
Job analysis is the process of gathering and organizing job information. This is then used by a
company to determine the tasks, duties and responsibilities of each job (job description) and the
human attributes such as knowledge, skills and abilities needed to perform it (job specifications).
Competency Analysis : Reviewing an organization's values, mission statement, and strategic
direction to identify behaviors, skills, and knowledge that all employees in a company must
demonstrate regardless of their position.
Use of job analysis information:
HR planning: assessing how employment equity goals can most effectively be met.
Recruitment and selection: what sort of person to hire, legal compliance (Bona Fide
Occupational requirement)
Compensation: the appropriate compensation for each job based on skills, physical
demands, responsibilities and working conditions
Performance Appraisal: related to the responsibilities identified through job analysis.
Labour Relations: used by unions to bargain for wages and working conditions
Training, Development, and Career Management: employers can compare the KSA of
employee, see the gaps and start training programs
Job design: All duties that need to be completed must be assigned to someone
Organizational Change Initiatives: reveal what needs to be modified, eliminated, or added
to enhance efficiency and effectiveness.
6 steps of Job Analysis
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