Organizing work: organizational structure formal relationships among jobs in an organization, three basic types: bureaucratic, flat, boundaryless. Job design process of systematically organizing work into tasks required to perform a specific job; must also meet human psychological/physiological needs. Job enlargement (horizontal loading) way to relieve monotony and boredom; assign workers additional tasks at the same level of responsibility. Job rotation systematically moving employees from one job to another. Job analysis procedure for determining tasks/duties/responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes (knowledge, skills, and abilities) required to perform it: sometimes called the cornerstone of hrm. Job description list of duties/responsibilities/relationships/working conditions of a job. Interview most widely used: 3 types: individual, group, supervisor, questionnaires, observation, participant diary/log. Quantitative job analysis methods: position analysis questionnaire (paq) collects quantifiable data concerning duties/responsibilities of various jobs. Job specification details human traits/experience required to perform the job. Organizational structure refers to the formal relationships among jobs in an organization.