Chapter 3 the resolution of disputes the courts and alternatives to. Judge makes findings of law, and jury of fact: sentencing circles used for aboriginal cases, where all interested persons meet to discuss the offence and sentencing options, restorative justice method. Courts of appeal of the provinces: provincial appellate courts hear appeals from lower courts of that province; must hear a case before it can go to the supreme court of canada. Federal court (trial court) hears disputes within federal jurisdiction (eg. copyrights, federal boards/commissions, federal lands/money, federal gov"t contracts) Canada citizens: 9 judges appointed by the gov"t, only deals with cases that have national significance or constitutional, also used to hear conflicts between provincial and federal gov"ts, sets binding precedents on all other courts or charter matters. The process of civil litigation: suits must be filed in a timely manner, should try to settle disputes outside of, case: court found that limitation can"t expire before victim of negligence is.