Business law in canada chapter 3: the resolu on of disputes the courts and alterna ves to. Two private persons use the court as a referee to adjudicate a dispute, and the judge (or judge with a jury) chooses between the two posi ons presented. A crime is an o ense against the state with the vic ms as witnesses. The government prosecutes the accused and the judge (or jury) must be convinced beyond a reasonable doubt. Specialized courts in some provinces for administra on of wills and estates. Used primarily at the provincial level for cases involving aboriginals. The judge is not bound to accept a circle sentence. Separated two divisions of federal court into the federal court (for trials) and the federal court of. Court ac on must be taken within a rela vely short me from the event. Time limita on varies depending on jurisdic on and nature of complaint.